The learning society: Six approaches / Sociedade da Aprendizagem: Seis Abordagens / Société cognitive: six approches

Autores

  • Daniel Schugurensky Universidade Federal de Uberlândia - Faculdade de Educação

Resumo

RESUMO: Este artigo examina a literatura sobre a sociedade da aprendizagem durante a última metade do século. A primeira parte aborda algumas questões conceituais e apresenta um breve panorama histórico. A segunda parte sistematiza teorizações sobre a sociedade da aprendizagem em torno de seis temas: auto-realização, desenvolvimento econômico, mercado da aprendizagem, teias de aprendizagem, comunidades democráticas e políticas governamentais. A literatura sobre o humanismo progressista enfatiza a auto-realização, desenvolvimento pessoal e direitos. A abordagem neoliberal para a sociedade da aprendizagem propõe um mercado de aprendizagem em que o conhecimento é uma mercadoria que pode ser comprada e vendida de acordo com a dinâmica de oferta e procura. O corpo de literatura das "teias de aprendizagem" está ligado em parte aos desafios relacionados ao monopólio do Estado sobre a educação formal; promove iniciativas de desescolarização, homeschooling, e uma variedade de iniciativas da sociedade civil para promover aprendizagem. A literatura relacionada a democracia local baseia-se em educação comunitária e tradições educacionais populares que enfatizam a aprendizagem na ação social, e apela para o desenvolvimento de "comunidades de aprendizagem " e "Cidades Educadoras". Finalmente, a literatura da "política de Estado" coloca ênfase em estruturas reguladoras, orientações políticas, programas e modalidades de financiamento iniciados por agências governamentais para promover as sociedades de aprendizagem.

ABSTRACT: This paper examines the literature on the learning society during the last half-century. The first part discusses some conceptual issues and provides a brief historical overview. The second part organizes the literature on learning societies around six themes: self-actualization, economic development, learning marketplace, learning webs, democratic communities, and state policy. The literature on progressive humanism emphasizes self-actualization, personal development, and rights. The neoliberal approach to the learning society proposes a learning marketplace in which knowledge is a commodity that can be bought and sold according to supply and demand dynamics. The body of literature of 'learning webs' is connected in part to challenges (coming both from the left and the right) to the monopoly of the state over formal education, promotes deschooling initiatives, homeschooling, and a variety of civil society initiatives to promote learning. The local democracy literature draws on communitarian and popular education traditions that emphasize learning in social action, and calls for the development of 'learning communities' and 'educating cities'. Finally, the 'state policy' literature puts the emphasis on regulatory frameworks, policy guidelines, programs and funding arrangements initiated by government agencies to promote learning societies.

RÉSUMÉ: Cet article examine la littérature sur la société cognitive (Learning Society) ces 50 dernières années. Sa première partie aborde quelques questions conceptuelles et présente un bref panorama historique. Sa seconde partie organise la littérature sur les sociétés cognitives autour de six thèmes : épanouissement (self-actualization), développement économique, marché de la connaissance, réseaux d'apprentissage, communautés démocratiques et politique d'État. Les ouvrages sur l'humanisme progressiste mettent l'accent sur l'épanouissement, le développement personnel et les droits. Ceux sur le capital humain se concentrent sur les investissements publics pour augmenter les compétences et améliorer le développement économique et la compétitivité internationale. L'approche néolibérale de la société cognitive propose un marché de la connaissance où cette dernière est une marchandise pouvant être achetée et vendue selon la dynamique de l'offre et de la demande. Les publications sur les « réseaux d'apprentissage » s'attachent en partie aux enjeux (provenant aussi bien de la gauche que de la droite) liés au monopole de l'état sur l'éducation formelle et mettent en avant des initiatives de déscolarisation, le homeschooling et toute une série d'actions de la société civile pour promouvoir l'apprentissage. La littérature sur la démocratie locale focalise une éducation communautaire et des traditions éducationnelles populaires, soulignant l'apprentissage dans l'action sociale, et elle appelle au développement de « communautés d'apprentissage » et de « villes éducatrices ». Finalement, les textes sur la « politique d'État » s'intéressent aux cadres réglementaires, aux orientations politiques, aux programmes et modalités de financement mis en Å“uvre par des organismes gouvernementaux pour promouvoir les sociétés cognitives.

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2013-11-07

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Schugurensky, D. (2013). The learning society: Six approaches / Sociedade da Aprendizagem: Seis Abordagens / Société cognitive: six approches. Revista Educação E Políticas Em Debate, 2(1). Recuperado de https://seer.ufu.br/index.php/revistaeducaopoliticas/article/view/24066

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