Campylobacteriosis: an emerging zoonosis, underdiagnosed and underreported by public health agencies in Brazil
Keywords:Campylobacter spp, Control, Broiler, Epidemiology
The infection by Campylobacter spp. constitutes a zoonosis of worldwide distribution, with serious repercussions for public health and a significant socio-economic impact. The Campylobacter species that most often are implicated in outbreaks of gastrointestinal disease are C. jejuni and C. coli. Both are recognized as the most important and with greater pathogenic potential from the viewpoint of food safety. This review aims to clarify and discuss, based on literature, the epidemiology of Campylobacter spp. and the main challenges in their control, to assist in better understanding of the risk posed to human health. Due to the difficulty of isolating and cultivating of Campylobacter spp., the high cost and not mandatory, laboratory diagnosis by traditional cultivation techniques is not widely used in Brazil, resulting in lack of accurate data on the occurrence of the disease in the country. This factor has been identified as responsible for underdiagnosing and underreporting of the disease, which means that data on contamination of animal products or outbreaks are not statements of actual national situation. The epidemiology of Campylobacter spp. is considered complex presenting multiple determinants in the spread of this microorganism. Chickens are important reservoirs of Campylobacter sp. and the main target of control measures, however, other vehicles of transmission, such as raw cow milk, drinking water and other foods of animal origin must also be considered in the set of measures to be taken to control disease. The infection by Campylobacter spp. cause gastroenteritis in humans and occurred by oral contact with infected animals. In fact, are pets or production and food consumption, the most important pathways. The clinical manifestations of the disease can be from mild to severe symptoms, including watery diarrhea, sometimes with blood, abdominal pain, fever, headache and nausea. Sometimes the infection can get complications after the diarrhea stops and starts a progressive paralysis that can result in respiratory failure and severe neurological dysfunction and may even lead to death. The occurrence of campylobacteriosi's outbreaks should be mandatory to the authorities of surveillance, to provide an investigation of common sources and transmission control through preventive measures , thereby minimizing the potential risks to human health.
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Copyright (c) 2015 Eliane Pereira Mendonça, Roberta Torres de Melo, Renata Resende Prado, Guilherme Paz Monteiro, Silvia Cassimiro Brasão, Marcela Franco Timoteo, Daise Aparecida Rossi
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.