Morphometry of the infraorbital foramen in dentate and edentulous adult humans and its clinical relevance




Infraorbital foramen, Infraorbital nerve, Maxilla, Morphometry.


The infraorbital foramen (IOF) serves as an important anatomical reference for infraorbital nerve block during different procedures. Its clinical and surgical relevance, associated with conflicting results in its anatomy description justifies the present study. Thus, this work aims to describe the IOF, qualitatively and quantitatively, and propose an accurate measurement to define its location. One hundred and seventy-four IOFs of dry skulls were analyzed and divided in dentate (DE) and edentulous (ED) groups. Distances were measured between the IOF and the margin of the alveolar arch of the maxilla (MAAM), the inferior orbital margin (IOM), the intermaxillary suture (IMS), the vertical plane of IOF. A new methodology was proposed to optimize the identification of IOF based on the IMS distance. Oval-shaped IOFs (n=81/174) with inferomedial orientation (n=104/174) and with a crest-shaped upper margin (n=163/174) constituted the norm for this sample. Distance between IOF and MAAM was 29.97 ± 4.09 mm, to IOM 7.27 ± 1.8 mm, and to IMS 35.09 ± 3.77 mm. ED individuals had IOF closer to MAAM (p=0.0124). The highest point of this methodology was the lack of statistical differences in the IMS distance in ED and DE specimens, making this method applicable for both. Therefore, to minimize iatrogenic injuries, clinicians and surgeons must consider the total or partial presence of teeth, the methodology established to find the IOF, its inferomedial orientation, and the prevalent crest on its superior margin.


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How to Cite

ALEXANDER, J.G. and BAPTISTA, J. da S., 2024. Morphometry of the infraorbital foramen in dentate and edentulous adult humans and its clinical relevance. Bioscience Journal [online], vol. 40, pp. e40007. [Accessed15 July 2024]. DOI 10.14393/BJ-v40n0a2024-68149. Available from:



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