Effect of Tai Chi on stress, anxiety, and self-perception of happiness: a longitudinal intervention study

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.14393/BJ-v39n0a2023-66738

Keywords:

Anxiety, Perception, Psychological Stress, Tai Chi, Tai Ji.

Abstract

This intervention follow-up study evaluated anxiety and stress levels and self-perceived happiness of individuals linked to the health field who did not practice Tai Chi and compared these variables before and after practicing this art. One hundred twenty-three participants were subdivided into two groups: G1) Older health professionals (n=41) and G2) Younger pre-university students interested in the health field (n=82). Participants received a 60-minute Tai Chi class. The Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-14) was applied before the practice, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and Andrews Face Scale were used before and after the class. Generalized linear models and the Bowker symmetry test were applied for data analysis. 46.3% and 30.5% of participants in G1 and G2 had mild stress levels, and 43.9% and 46.3% had moderate stress levels, respectively. After practicing Tai Chi, both groups presented significantly lower mean anxiety scores. In G1, 31.7% of participants went from moderate to mild anxiety levels after practice, 19.5% from severe to moderate, and 7.3% from severe to mild. In G2, 28.2% of participants went from moderate to mild anxiety levels after practice, 18.3% from severe to moderate, and 6.1% from severe to mild. Furthermore, 100.0% of individuals in G1 and 96.3% in G2 were happy after the class. Tai Chi was effective in reducing anxiety levels and improving self-perceived happiness.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

ABBOTT, R., and LAVRETSKY, H. Tai Chi and Qigong for the treatment and prevention of mental disorders. Psychiatric Clinics North America. 2013, 36(1), 109-119. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psc.2013.01.011

ANTUNES, P.C. and FRAGA A.B. Integrative mind-body practices: concept proposal for the field of Traditional and Complementary Medicine. Práticas corporais integrativas: proposta conceitual para o campo das Práticas Integrativas e Complementares em Saúde. Ciencia e Saude Coletiva. 2021, 26(9), 4217-4232. https://doi.org/10.1590/1413-81232021269.14082020

AZEVEDO, R.R., et al. Correlação entre estresse percebido e níveis de atividade física de recepcionistas de academias. Revista Brasileira de Pesquisa em Saúde. 2018, 5(9), 16-19.

BARBOSA, F.E.S., et al. Oferta de Práticas Integrativas e Complementares em Saúde na Estratégia Saúde da Família no Brasil. Cadernos de Saúde Publica. 2019, 36(1), e00208818. doi:10.1590/0102-311X00208818

BRASIL. Ministério da Saúde. Secretaria de Atenção à Saúde. Departamento de Atenção Básica. Política nacional de práticas integrativas e complementares no SUS : atitude de ampliação de acesso / Ministério da Saúde. Secretaria de Atenção à Saúde. Departamento de Atenção Básica. – 2. ed. – Brasília : Ministério da Saúde, 2015. 96 p.

CALDWELL, K.L., et al. Effects of tai chi chuan on anxiety and sleep quality in young adults: lessons from a randomized controlled feasibility study. Nature Science Sleep. 2016, 8, 305-314. https://doi.org/10.2147/NSS.S117392

CARDONA ARANGO, D., et al. La felicidad como predictor de funcionalidad familiar del adulto mayor en tres ciudades de Colombia. Hacia la Promocio de la Salud. 2019, 24(1), 97-111. https://doi.org/10.17151/hpsal.2019.24.1.9

CHANG, M.Y., et al. Associations between Tai Chi Chung program, anxiety, and cardiovascular risk factors. American Journal Health Promotion. 2013, 28(1), 16-22. https://doi.org/10.4278/ajhp.120720-QUAN-356

COHEN, S., KAMARCK, T. and MERMELSTEIN, R. A global measure of perceived stress. Journal of Health and Social Behavior. 1983, 24(4), 385-396.

FERNANDES, M.A., et al. Prevalência dos transtornos de ansiedade como causa de afastamento de trabalhadores. Revista Brasilseira de Enfermagem. 2018, 71(5), 2213-2220. https://doi.org/10.1590/0034-7167-2017-0953

FIELD T., et al. Tai chi/yoga reduces prenatal depression, anxiety and sleep disturbances. Complementery Therapies in Clinical Practice. 2013, 19(1), 6-10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ctcp.2012.10.001

GALLEGO, J., et al. Effect of Mind/ Body Interventions on Levels of Anxiety, Stress and Depression Among Future Primary School Teacher: A Controlled Study. Revista de Psicodidáctica. 2016, 21(1), 87-101. https://doi.org/10.1387/RevPsicodidact.13256

GALVANESE, A.T.C., et al. Contribuições e desafios das práticas corporais e meditativas à promoção da saúde na rede pública de atenção primária do Município de São Paulo, Brasil. Cadernos de Saude Publica. 2017, 33(12), e00122016. https://doi.org/10.1590/0102-311X00122016

JIANG, D., KONG, W. and JIANG, J.J. The Role of Tai Chi in Mental Health Management-Lessons Learned from Clinical Trials. Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials. 2016, 11(4), 324-332. https://doi.org/10.2174/1574887111666160729100829

KANDOLA, A., et al. Moving to Beat Anxiety: Epidemiology and Therapeutic Issues with Physical Activity for Anxiety. Current Psychiatry Reports. 2018, 20(8), 63. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11920-018-0923-x

KONG, J., et al. Treating Depression With Tai Chi: State of the Art and Future Perspectives. Frontiers in Psychiatry. 2019, 10, 237. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2019.00237

LAIRD, K.T., et al. Mind-Body Therapies for Late-Life Mental and Cognitive Health. Current Psychiatry Reports. 2018, 20(1), 2. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11920-018-0864-4

LIU, J., et al. The Effects of Tai Chi on Heart Rate Variability in Older Chinese Individuals with Depression. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2018, 15(12), 2771. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15122771

MA, C., et al. The impact of group-based Tai chi on health-status outcomes among community-dwelling older adults with hypertension. Heart & Lung. 2018, 47(4), 337-344. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hrtlng.2018.04.007

MCDOWELL, I. and NEWELL, C. Measuring health. A guide to rating scales and questionnaires. New York: Oxford University Press; 1996, 1-766.

RAWTAER, I., et al. Psychosocial interventions with art, music, Tai Chi and mindfulness for subsyndromal depression and anxiety in older adults: A naturalistic study in Singapore. Asia-Pacific Psychiatry. 2015, 7(3), 240-250. https://doi.org/10.1111/appy.12201

REMES, O., et al. A systematic review of reviews on the prevalence of anxiety disorders in adult populations. Brain and Behavior. 2016, 6(7), e00497. https://doi.org/10.1002/brb3.497

RISKOWSKI, J.L., e ALMEHEYAWI, R. Effects of Tai Chi and Qigong in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review of Trials. Adolescent Research Review. 2019, 4 ,73-91. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40894-017-0067-y

SCALCO, D.L., ARAUJO, C.L. and BASTOS, J.L. Autopercepção de Felicidade e Fatores Associados em Adultos de uma Cidade do Sul do Brasil: Estudo de Base Populacional. Psicologia: Reflexão e Crítica. 2011, 24(4), 648-657. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0102-79722011000400004

SHARMA, M. and HAIDER, T. Tai chi as an alternative and complimentary therapy for anxiety: a systematic review. Journal of Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2015, 20(2), 143-153. https://doi.org/10.1177/2156587214561327

SIU, P.M., et al. Effects of Tai Chi or Exercise on Sleep in Older Adults With Insomnia: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Network Open. 2021, 4(2), e2037199. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.37199

SOUSA, I.M., et al. Práticas integrativas e complementares: oferta e produção de atendimentos no SUS e em municípios selecionados. Cadernos de Saude Publica. 2012, 28(11), 2143-2154. https://doi.org/10.1590/s0102-311x2012001100014

SPIELBERGER, C.D., GORSUCH, R.L. and LUSHENE R.E. Test manual for the State Trait Anxiety Inventory. Palo Alto, California: Consulting Psychologists Press, 1970.

VANNUCI, A., FLANNERY, K.M. and OHANNESSIAN, C.M. Social media use and anxiety in emerging adults. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2017, 207, 163-166. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2016.08.040

WANG, F., et al. The effects of tai chi on depression, anxiety, and psychological well-being: a systematic review and meta-analysis. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine. 2014, 21(4), 605-617. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12529-013-9351-9

WEGER, M. and SANDI, C. High anxiety trait: A vulnerable phenotype for stress-induced depression. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews. 2018, 87, 27–37. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2018.01.012

WEBSTER, C.S., et al. A systematic review of the health benefits of Tai Chi for students in higher education. Preventive Medicine Reports. 2015, 3, 103-112. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pmedr.2015.12.006

XU, S., BAKER, J.S. and REN, F. The Positive Role of Tai Chi in Responding to the COVID-19 Pandemic. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021, 18(14), 7479. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18147479

YARIBEYGI, H., et al. The impact of stress on body function: A review. EXCLI Journal. 2017, 16, 1057-1072. https://doi.org/10.17179/excli2017-480

YIN, J. and DISHMAN, R.K. The Effect of Tai Chi and Qigong practice on depression and anxiety symptoms: A systematic review and meta-regression analysis of randomized controlled trials. Mental Health and Physical Activity. 2014, 2014(3), 135-146. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mhpa.2014.08.001

ZHANG, L., et al. A review focused on the psychological effectiveness of tai chi on different populations. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2012, 2012, 678107. https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/678107

ZHENG, S., et al. Protocol: the effect of 12 weeks of Tai Chi practice on anxiety in healthy but stressed people compared to exercise and wait-list comparison groups: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies. 2014, 7(3), 159-165. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jams.2014.01.003

ZHENG, S., et al. The Effects of Twelve Weeks of Tai Chi Practice on Anxiety in Stressed But Healthy People Compared to Exercise and Wait-List Groups-A Randomized Controlled Trial. Journal of Clinical Psychology. 2018, 74(1), 83-92. https://doi.org/10.1002/jclp.22482

ZOU, L., et al. Effects of Mind⁻Body Exercises (Tai Chi/Yoga) on Heart Rate Variability Parameters and Perceived Stress: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2018, 7(11), 404. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm7110404

ZOU, P., et al. Associations between negative life events and anxiety, depressive, and stress symptoms: A cross-sectional study among Chinese male senior college students. Psychiatry Research. 2018, 270, 26-33. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2018.09.019

Downloads

Published

2023-05-05

How to Cite

CEZÁRIO, L.R.A., AMBROSANO, G.M.B., AMBROSANO, G.B., TAÍRA, A., POSSOBON, R. de F., MENEGHIM, M. de C. and CORTELLAZZI, K.L., 2023. Effect of Tai Chi on stress, anxiety, and self-perception of happiness: a longitudinal intervention study. Bioscience Journal [online], vol. 39, pp. e39079. [Accessed23 July 2024]. DOI 10.14393/BJ-v39n0a2023-66738. Available from: https://seer.ufu.br/index.php/biosciencejournal/article/view/66738.

Issue

Section

Health Sciences