Differential levels of soybean resistance to the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) under controlled and uncontrolled environments are associated with plant age, damage intensity, and trichome density
Keywords:B. tabaci, Breeding, Correlation, Insect population, Leaf trichome.
Whiteflies are a severe threat to soybean production in the tropics. This study aimed to evaluate the soybean resistance level of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci in controlled and uncontrolled environments that is associated with plant age, damage intensity, and trichome density. The research was conducted under two conditions: non-sprayed (NS) and sprayed (SP). This study used 50 soybean genotypes arranged in a randomized block design with three replicates. The whitefly population was derived from natural infestations. The results showed that the highest wild population of B. tabaci occurred at 40 days after planting (DAP), i.e., 126.08 adults/plant in the NS environment and 22.57 adults/plant in the SP environment. The peak damage intensity occurred at 50 DAP, 20.71% in the NS environment, and 17.15% in the SP environment. In the NS environment, there were six resistant genotypes (including the resistant control G100H), 25 moderate, and 19 susceptible genotypes. In the SP environment, 19 genotypes were resistant, 22 genotypes were moderate, and nine genotypes were susceptible, respectively. Six soybean genotypes showed consistent resistance to B. tabaci in NS and SP environments. The low density of leaf trichomes in soybean may influence the high resistance to B. tabaci. The resistant genotypes identified in this study could be utilized in breeding programs for B. tabaci resistance.
ADIE, M.M., KRISNAWATI, A. and BALIADI, Y. Evaluation for soybean resistance to armyworm Spodoptera litura(Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). IOP Conference Series: Earth Environmental Science. 2020, 484, 012020. https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/484/1/012020
AMINI, S.N., et al. Interaction between host plant morphological characteristics with life history of the greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum. Arthropod-Plant Interactions. 2021, 15(6), 875-885. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11829-021-09870-0
ARNEMANN, J.A., et al. Managing whitefly on soybean. Journal of Agricultural Science. 2019, 11(9), 41-51. https://doi.org/10.5539/jas.v11n9p41
AVRDC. Soybean Report. Taiwan: Asian Vegetable Research and Development Centre, 1979.
AYALA, C., et al. Preference for oviposition by sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), in two soybean genotypes, and volatile release. Southwestern Entomologist. 2020, 45(1), 99-108. https://doi.org/10.3958/059.045.0111
BALDIN, E.L.L., et al. Characterization of antixenosis in soybean genotypes to Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) biotype B. Journal of Economic Entomology. 2017, 110(4), 1869-1876. https://doi.org/10.1093/jee/tox143
BARROS, P.P.S., et al. Monitoring Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) infestation in soybean by proximal sensing. Insects. 2021, 12(1), 47. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12010047
BERNAOLA, L. AND HOLT, J. R. Incorporating sustainable and technological approaches in pest management of invasive arthropod species. Annals of the Entomological Society of America. 2021, 114(6), 673-685. https://doi.org/10.1093/aesa/saab041
CRUZ, P. and BALDIN, E.L.L. Performance of Bemisia tabaci biotype B on soybean genotypes. Neotropical Entomology. 2016, 46(2), 210-215. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13744-016-0445-3
DA SILVA, J. P. G. F., et al. Assessing Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) biotype B resistance in soybean genotypes: antixenosis and antibiosis. Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research. 2012, 72(4), 516. https://doi.org/10.4067/S0718-58392012000400009
DE OLIVEIRA, J.R.F., et al. Tomato breeding for sustainable crop systems: High levels of zingiberene providing resistance to multiple arthropods. Horticulturae. 2020, 6(2), 34. https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae6020034
DOMINGOS, G.M., et al. Resistance of collard green genotypes to Bemisia tabaci Biotype B: characterization of antixenosis. Neotropical Entomology. 2018, 47(4), 560–568. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13744-018-0588-5
ELLSWORTH, P. C. and MARTINEZ-CARRILLO, J. L. IPM for Bemisia tabaci: a case study from North America. Crop Protection. 2001, 20(9), 853-869. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0261-2194(01)00116-8
FAIZ, M.F., et al. Effect of soybean leaf trichomes on the preference of various soybean pests on field. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science. 2021, 694, 012046. https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/694/1/012046
GOIANA, E.S.S., et al. Dwarf-cashew resistance to whitefly (Aleurodicus cocois) linked to morphological and histochemical characteristics of leaves. Pest Management Science. 2020, 76(2), 464-471. https://doi.org/10.1002/ps.5531
GULLUOGLU, L., ARIOGLU, H. and KURT,C. Field evaluation of soybean cultivars for resistance to whitefly (Bemisia tabaci Genn.) infestations. African Journal of Agricultural Research. 2010, 5(7), 555-560. https://doi.org/10.5897/AJAR09.181
HUANG, H. J., et al. Diversity and infectivity of the RNA virome among different cryptic species of an agriculturally important insect vector: whitefly Bemisia tabaci. npj Biofilms and Microbiomes. 2021, 7(1), 1-15. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41522-021-00216-5
INAYATI, A. and MARWOTO. Effects of combination insecticide application and varieties on whitefly infestation and soybean yield. Penelitian Pertanian Tanaman Pangan. 2012, 31(1), 13-21. Available from: http://repository.pertanian.go.id/handle/123456789/1361
KHAMIS, F. M., et al. Mitogenomic analysis of diversity of key whitefly pests in Kenya and its implication to their sustainable management. Scientific Reports, 2021, 11(1), 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-85902-2
KUMAR, R., SINGH,P.S. and SINGH, S.K. Evaluation of certain mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek] genotypes for resistance against major sucking insect pests. International Journal of Agriculture, Environment and Biotechnology. 2019, 12(2), 135-139. https://doi.org/10.30954/0974-1712.06.2019.9
LI, S.J., et al. Host plants and natural enemies of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in China. Insect Science. 2011, 18(1), 101-120. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-7917.2010.01395.x
LYKOGIANNI, M.,et al. Do pesticides promote or hinder sustainability in agriculture? The challenge of sustainable use of pesticides in modern agriculture. Science of The Total Environment. 2021, 795, 148625. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.148625
MANIVANNAN, A., et al. Identification of a sulfatase that detoxifies glucosinolates in the phloem-feeding insect Bemisia tabaci and prefers indolic glucosinolates. Frontiers in Plant Science. 2021, 12, 671286. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2021.671286
MARABI, R.S., et al. Seasonal population dynamics of whitefly (Bemisia tabaci Gennadius) in soybean. Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies. 2017, 5(2), 169-173. Available from: https://www.entomoljournal.com/archives/?year=2017&vol=5&issue=2&ArticleId=1588
MARASEK-CIOLAKOWSKA, A., et al. Investigation on the relationship between morphological and anatomical characteristic of savoy cabbage and kale leaves and infestation by cabbage whitefly (Aleyrodes proletella L.). Agronomy. 2021, 11(2), 275. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy110202755
MARTIN, J.H. and MOUND, L.A. An Annotated Check List of the World’s Whiteflies (Insecta: Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). Magnolia Press: Aukland, New Zealand, 2007.
MOOKIAH, S., et al. Host Plant Resistance. In: Omkar (eds) Molecular Approaches for Sustainable Insect Pest Management. 2021. Springer, Singapore. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-16-3591-5_1
MURRY, L., IMTINARO, L. and JAMIR, T. Screening of some soybean (Glycine max l. Merrill) genotypes for resistance against major insect pests. International Journal of Bio-resource and Stress Management. 2018, 9(2), 231-236. https://doi.org/10.23910/IJBSM/2018.9.2.1864a
NAALDEN, D., et al. Spotlight on the roles of whitefly effectors in insect–plant interactions. Frontiers in Plant Science. 2021, 12, 661141. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2021.661141
NIVEDITA, S., et al. Bionomics of whitefly on soybean cultivars under laboratory conditions. Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies. 2020, 8(3), 762-766. Available from: https://www.entomoljournal.com/archives/?year=2020&vol=8&issue=3
NOVAES, N.S., et al. Characterization and potential mechanisms of resistance of cucumber genotypes to Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: leyrodidae). Phytoparasitica. 2020, 48(4), 643–657. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12600-020-00826-3
PADILHA, G., et al. Damage assessment of Bemisia tabaci and economic injury level on soybean. Crop Protection. 2021, 143, 105542. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cropro.2021.105542
PATIL, V., et al. Population dynamics of whitefly and incidence of yellow mosaic virus disease on mung bean in relation to abiotic factors in Bihar, India. Journal of Experimental Zoology India. 2021, 24(1), 475-479. Available from: https://connectjournals.com/03895.2021.24.475
RSTUDIO TEAM. 2020. R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing. Vienna, Austria. Available from https://www.R-project.org/.
SANI, I., et al. A review of the biology and control of whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), with special reference to biological control using entomopathogenic fungi. Insects. 2020, 11(9), 619. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11090619
SANTOS, T. L. B., et al. Resistance sources and antixenotic factors in Brazilian bean genotypes against Bemisia tabaci. Neotropical Entomology. 2022, 50(1), 129-144. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13744-020-00821-7
SARI, K.P, and SULISTYO, A. Assessment of soybean resistance to whitefly (Bemisia tabaci Genn.) infestations. Pertanika Journal of Tropical Agricultural Science. 2018, 41(2), 825 – 832. Available from: http://www.pertanika.upm.edu.my/pjtas/browse/archives?article=JTAS-S0021-2018
SATAR, G., et al. Neonicotinoid insecticide resistance among populations of Bemisia tabaci in the Mediterranean region of Turkey. Bulletin of Insectology. 2018, 71 (2), 171-177. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/329144456_Neonicotinoid_insecticide_resistance_among_populations_of_Bemisia_tabaci_in_the_Mediterranean_region_of_Turkey
SINGH, R.K. and CHAUDHARY, B.D. 1977. Biometrical Methods in Quantitative Genetic Analysis. New Delhi: Kalyani Publishers.
SUEKANE, R., et al. Spatial distribution of soybean plants infested with whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius, 1889) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). Arquivos do Instituto Biológico. 2018, 85, 1-6. https://doi.org/10.1590/1808-1657000642016
SULISTYO, A. and INAYATI, A. Mechanisms of antixenosis, antibiosis, and tolerance of fourteen soybean genotypes in response to whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci). Biodiversitas. 2016, 17(2), 447-453. https://doi.org/10.13057/biodiv/d170207
VIEIRA, S.S., et al. Resistance of soybean genotypes to Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) biotype B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). Neotropical Entomology. 2011, 40(1), 117-122. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1519-566X2011000100018
WANG, N., et al. A whitefly effector Bsp9 targets host immunity regulator WRKY33 to promote performance. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. 2019, 374, 20180313. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2018.0313
WANG, R., et al. Characterization of field-evolved resistance to afidopyropen, a novel insecticidal toxin developed from microbial secondary metabolites, in Bemisia tabaci. Toxins. 2022, 14(7), 453. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins14070453
XU, R., et al. Screening of soybean germplasm resistant to whitefly and the resistant mechanism. Journal of Plant Genetic Resources. 2005, 6(1), 56-62.
ZHANG, Q., et al. Plant flavonoids enhance the tolerance to thiamethoxam and flupyradifurone in whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology. 2021, 171, 104744. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pestbp.2020.104744
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2023 Ayda Krisnawati, Mochammad Muchlish Adie, Ruly Krisdiana, Yusmani Prayogo, Rudy Soehendi, Yuliantoro Baliadi
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.