Genetic variability of cocoa from the amazon basin: implications for genetic conservation


  • Maria Eduarda da Silva Guimarães Universidade Federal de Viçosa
  • Luiz Antônio dos Santos Dias Universidade Federal de Viçosa
  • Caio Márcio Vasconcelos Cordeiro de Almeida Comitê Executivo do Plano da Lavoura Cacaueira
  • Carlos Alberto Spaggiari Souza Comitê Executivo do Plano da Lavoura Cacaueira
  • Odimar Ferreira Almeida Universidade Federal de Viçosa
  • Thais Roseli Corrêa Universidade Estadual do Maranhão



Amazon basin, Cacao, Genebank, Genetic diversity, Theobroma cacao L.


The cocoa and chocolate production chain involves US$60 billion annually and three million farmers around the world, in an area exceeding nine million hectares. The use of wild germplasm will enable to generate new disease- and pest-resistant cultivars and ability to adapt to changing environments. Here we evaluated 145 cocoa accessions, originated from nine Amazonian basins, based on eight fruit traits. Univariate anova showed significant differences (p<0.05) for all traits. For seven traits, the variance component within basins was higher (81.5%, on average). Therefore, it is recommended that the collection of wild accessions prioritize a larger number of plants from a few populations of the most divergent basins. The multivariate analyses revealed a greater divergence between the Ji-Paraná-RO and Solimões/Amazonas-PA basins (27.69) and a greater similarity between Alien clones-PER and Solimões/Amazonas-AM (0.66) in relation to their populations. They also revealed that the accessions differentiation occurred according to the river basin system. These results allowed elucidate the genetic structure and distribution of cacao populations. In addition, strengthen the importance of collecting and conserving germplasm to preserve genetic resources.


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How to Cite

GUIMARÃES, M.E. da S., DIAS, L.A. dos S., ALMEIDA, C.M.V.C. de, SOUZA, C.A..S., ALMEIDA, O..F. and CORRÊA, T.R., 2023. Genetic variability of cocoa from the amazon basin: implications for genetic conservation. Bioscience Journal [online], vol. 39, pp. e39020. [Accessed26 March 2023]. DOI 10.14393/BJ-v39n0a2023-63126. Available from:



Agricultural Sciences