Determination of bioactive compounds, antimicrobial activity, and the phytochemistry of the organic banana peel in Thailand




Antioxidant, Antimicrobial activity, Banana peel extract, Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), Phytochemical components.


Banana fruit is enriched with phytonutrients, minerals, and its peel, which is mostly discarded as waste. This research aimed to study its bioactive compound properties, antimicrobial activity, and identify and characterize the constituents of organic banana peel extract (BPE), composed of six species (i.e., Kluai Homthong, Kluai Namwa, Kluai Kai, Kluai Hukmook, Kluai Lebmuernang, and Kluai Homtaiwan). Total phenolic content (TPC), antioxidant content, and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were important in BPE of Kluai Kai. BPE of Kluai Hukmook could inhibit Aeromonas hydrophila and Staphylococcus aureus. The Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectrum exposed diverse compounds of primary and secondary phytochemicals. Four main constituents, including acetic acid, formic acid, 1,2-benzenediol,3-methyl-, and 4-hydroxy-2-methylacetophone derived from gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS), demonstrated their antioxidant properties and antimicrobial activity. This result suggests that organic banana peel can both be applied as an antioxidant and antimicrobial substance. BPE increases the value of banana peels (BPs) and reduces the burden of its waste disposal in the environment.


Download data is not yet available.


ABOUL-ENEIN, A.M.S., et al. Identification of phenolic compounds from banana peel (Musa paradaisica L.) as antioxidant and antimicrobial agents. Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research. 2016, 8(4), 46–55.

ALEJANDRA, G.C., et al. An integrated analysis of the Musa paradisiaca peel, using UHPLC-ESI, FTIR and confocal microscopy techniques. Annals of Chromatography and Separation Techniques. 2015, 1(1), 1–5.

ALEMDAR, A. and SAIN, M. Isolation and characterization of nanofibers from agricultural residues – wheat straw and soy hulls. Bioresource Technology. 2008, 99(6), 1664–1671.

AL-ZOREKY, N.S. Antimicrobial activity of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruit peels. International Journal of Food Microbiology. 2009, 132(3), 244-248.

AMRI, F.S.A. and HOSSAIN, M.A. Comparison of total phenols, flavonoids and antioxidant potential of local and imported ripe bananas. Egyptian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences. 2018, 5(4), 245-251.

BENZIE, I.F.F. and STRAIN, J.J. The ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) as a measure of “antioxidant power”: The FRAP assay. Analytical Biochemistry. 1996, 239(1), 70–76.

BLIOS, M.S. 1958. Antioxidant determination by the use of a stable free radical. Nature. 1958, 26, 1199−1200.

BREIJYEH, Z., JUBEH, B. and KARAMAN, R. Resistance of gram-negative bacteria to current antibacterial agents and approaches to resolve it. Molecules. 2020, 25(6), 1-23.

CHEREMISINOFF, N.P. and ROSENFELD, P.E. Sources of air emissions from pulp and paper mills. In: N.P. Cheremisinoff and P.E. Rosenfeld, eds. Handbook of Pollution Prevention and Cleaner Production. Oxford: William Andrew Publishing, pp. 179–259.

DESHMUKH, P.D., et al. Cadmium removal from aqueous solutions using dried banana peels as an adsorbent: kinetics and equilibrium modeling. Journal of Bioremediation & Biodegradation. 2017, 8(3), 1-7.

DIXON, R. A. and PAIVA, N. L. Stress-induced phenylpropanoid metabolism. The Plant Cell. 1995, 7, 1085–1097.

EL-NAFATY, U.A., MUHAMMAD, I.M. and ABDULSALAM, S. Biosorption and kinetic studies on oil removal from produced water using banana peel. Civil and Environmental Research. 2013, 3(7), 125-136.

FRAISE, A.P., et al. The antibacterial activity and stability of acetic acid. Journal of Hospital Infection. 2013, 84(4), 329–331.

GNANASAMBANDAM, R. and PROCTOR, A. Determination of pectin degree of esterification by diffuse reflectance fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Food Chemistry. 2000, 68(3), 327-332.

GONZÁLEZ-CABRERA, M., DOMÍNGUEZ-VIDAL, A. and AYORA-CAÑADA, M.J. Hyperspectral FTIR imaging of olive fruit for understanding ripening processes. Postharvest Biology and Technology. 2018, 145, 74–82.

GONZÁLEZ-MONTELONGO, R., GLORIA LOBO, M. and GONZÁLEZ, M. Antioxidant activity in banana peel extracts: Testing extraction conditions and related bioactive compounds. Food Chemistry. 2010, 119(3), 1030–1039.

HOUSAGUL, S., et al. Biomethane production from co-digestion of banana peel and waste glycerol. Energy Procedia. 2014, 61, 2219–2223.

JEFFERY, E.H., et al. Variation in content of bioactive components in broccoli. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis. 2003, 16(3), 323–330.

KAMSONLIAN, S., et al. Characterization of banana and orange peels: biosorption mechanism. International Journal of Science Technology & Management. 2011, 2(4), 1-7

KHAMSUCHARIT, P., et al. Characterization of pectin extracted from banana peels of different varieties. Food Science and Biotechnology. 2018, 27(3), 623–629.

LU, X. et al. Determination of total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of onion (Allium cepa) and shallot (Allium oschaninii) using infrared spectroscopy. Food Chemistry. 2011, 129(2), 637–644.

MALLAVADHANI, U.V., et al. Chemical and analytical screening of some edible mushrooms. Food Chemistry. 2006, 95(1), 58–64.

MEHROTRA V., et al. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of aqueous extract of Withania somnifera against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. J. Microbial Biotechnology. 2017, 1(1), 40-45.

MEMON, J.R., et al. Banana peel: A green and economical sorbent for the selective removal of Cr(VI) from industrial wastewater. Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces. 2009, 70(2), 232–237.

MOKBEL, M.S. and HASHINAGA, F. Antibacterial and antioxidant activities of banana (Musa, AAA cv. Cavendish) fruits peel. American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology. 2005, 1(3), 125–131.

MORDI, R.C., et al. Identification by GC-MS of the components of oils of banana peels extract, phytochemical and antimicrobial analyses. Research Journal of Phytochemistry. 2016, 10(1), 39–44.

NOGALES-BUENO, J., et al. Study of phenolic extractability in grape seeds by means of ATR-FTIR and Raman spectroscopy. Food Chemistry. 2017, 232, 602–609.

PATIAL, P.K., et al. Correlation study among the extraction techniques, phytochemicals, and antioxidant activity of Nepeta spicata aerial part. Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology. 2019, 20, 1-14.

RAHMAN, S.N.F.S.A., WAHID, R. and RAHMAN, N.A. Drying kinetics of Nephelium lappaceum (rambutan) in a drying oven. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences. 2015, 195, 2734–2741.

RATTANAVICHAI, W. and CHENG, W. Effects of hot-water extract of banana (Musa acuminata) fruit’s peel on the antibacterial activity, and anti-hypothermal stress, immune responses and disease resistance of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbegii. Fish & Shellfish Immunology. 2014, 39(2), 326–335.

SALEEM, M. and SAEED, M.T. 2020. Potential application of waste fruit peels (orange, yellow lemon and banana) as wide range natural antimicrobial agent. Journal of King Saud University - Science. 2020, 32(1), 805–810.

SINGH, B., et al. Bioactive compounds in banana and their associated health benefits – A review. Food Chemistry. 2016, 206, 1–11.

SINGLETON, V.L. and ROSSI, J.A. Colorimetry of total phenolics with phosphomolybdic-phosphotungstic acid reagents. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture. 1965. 16(3), 144–158.

SOLTANI, M., ALIMARDANI, R. and OMID, M. Prediction of banana quality during ripening stage using capacitance sensing system. Australian Journal of Crop Science. 2010, 4(6), 443-447.

SULAIMAN, S.F., SAJAK, A.A.B. and OOI, K.L.S.; SEOW, E.M. Effect of solvents in extracting polyphenols and antioxidants of selected raw vegetables. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis. 2011, 24(4), 506–515.

THOMAS, S.K. and JOHNEY, J. Eco-friendly synthesis of silver nanaparticle using banana (Musa acuminata colla) peel, its phytochemical, antimicrobial and anticancer activity. International Journal of Recent Scientific Research. 2017, 8(10), 21098-21106.

UMMARAT, N., et al. Changes in antioxidants and fruit quality in hot water-treated ‘Hom Thong’ banana fruit during storage. Scientia Horticulturae. 2011, 130(4), 801–807.

VU, H.T., SCARLETT, C.J. and VUONG, Q.V. Phenolic compounds within banana peel and their potential uses: A review. Journal of Functional Foods. 2018, 40, 238–248.




How to Cite

NAKSING, T., TEEKA, J.., RATTANAVICHAI, W., PONGTHAI, P., KAEWPA, D. and AREESIRISUK, A., 2021. Determination of bioactive compounds, antimicrobial activity, and the phytochemistry of the organic banana peel in Thailand. Bioscience Journal [online], vol. 37, pp. e37024. [Accessed14 August 2022]. DOI 10.14393/BJ-v37n0a2021-56306. Available from:



Agricultural Sciences