Evaluation of apical transportation and apical root sealing in root canals prepared with mtwo rotary system with and without apical enlargement – an in vitro study





Apical foramen, Instrumentation, Enlargement, Root canal filling.


The aim of this study was to evaluate apical transportation and apical root canal sealing after root canal filling in human teeth prepared with MTwo® Rotary System with and without apical foramen enlargement. Twenty mandibular premolars were divided into two groups (n=10). Group 1 had root canals prepared 1mm beyond the apical foramen. Group 2 had root canals prepared 1mm below the root canal length. After chemo-mechanical preparation, samples were submitted to scanning electronic microscopy. Apical foramen images had 75x magnification at standardized positions, allowing measurements from the apical foramen area before and after root canal preparation, and after root canal filling. Apical foramen shape and apical transportation, as well as its level of circumferential filling after root canal preparation were accessed using the Image Subtraction System. Scanning electronic microscopy analysis demonstrated that samples of Group 1 showed larger foraminal diameter than samples of Group 2 (p<0.05). Apical foramen transportation was statistically different between Groups 1 and 2 (p=0.0108). Furthermore, the apical foramen sealing also differed statistically between groups 1 and 2 (p=0.0007) and 100% of samples of Group 1 showed apical root canal sealing. Apical root canal sealing was more effective when the root canal was prepared with apical foramen enlargement, even when the apical transportation was detected.


Download data is not yet available.


ALBUQUERQUE, P.P., et al. Influence of foraminal enlargement on the apical extrusion of filling material: Volumetric analysis using micro-computed tomography. Australian Endodontic Journal. 2020, 46(2), 210-216. https://doi.org/10.1111/aej.12394

BENATTI, O., et al. A histological study of the effect of diameter enlargement of the apical portion of the root canal. Journal of Endodontics. 1985, 11(10), 428-434. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0099-2399(85)80080-7

BORLINA, S.C., et al. Influence of apical foramen widening and sealer on the healing of chronic periapical lesions induced in dogs’ teeth. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, and Endodontics. 2010, 109(6), 932-940. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tripleo.2010.01.028

BRANDÃO, P.M., et al. Influence of foraminal enlargement on the healing of periapical lesions in rat molars. Clinical Oral Investigations. 2019, 23(4), 1985-1991. https://doi.org/:10.1007/s00784-018-2628-2

BUCHANAN, L.S. The standardized-taper root canal preparation – Part 1. Concepts for variably tapered shaping instruments. International Endodontic Journal. 2001, 33(6), 516-529. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2591.2000.00384.x

CARD, S.J., et al. The effectiveness of increased apical enlargement in reducing intracanal bacteria. Journal of Endodontics, 2002, 28(11), 779–783. https://doi.org/10.1097/00004770-200211000-00008

CHUGAL, N.M., CLIVE, J.M. and SPANGBERG, L.S.W. Endodontic infection: some biologic and treatment factors associated with outcome. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, and Endodontics. 2003, 96(1), 81-90. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1079-2104(02)91703-8

ENDO, M.S., SOARES, A.J. and SOUZA-FILHO, F.J. Análise morfológica do forame apical após o preparo endodôntico com patência e ampliação foraminal. Revista da Associação Paulista de Cirurgiões Dentistas. 2011, 65(2), 145-151. ISSN: 0004-5276.

HOLLAND, R., et al. Influence of apical patency and filling material on healing process of dogs' teeth with vital pulp after root canal therapy. Brazilian Dental Journal. 2005, 16(1), 9-16. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0103-64402005000100002

JARA, C.M., et al. Influence of apical enlargement on the repair of apical periodontitis in rats. International Endodontic Journal. 2018, 51(11), 1261-1270. https://doi.org/10.1111/iej.12949

MOHAMMADI, Z., et al. Establishing Apical Patency: To be or not to be? Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice. 2017, 18(4), 326-329. https://doi.org/10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2040

MOUNCE, R. What is apical patency and does it matter? Compendium of Continuing Education in Dentistry (Jamesburg, N.J. : 1995). 2005, 26(1), 62-66.

NEGISHI, J., KAWANAMI, M. and OGAMI, E. Risk analysis of failure of root canal treatment for teeth with inaccessible apical constriction. Journal of Dentistry. 2005, 33(5), 399-404. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jdent.2004.11.003

PERASSI, F.T., et al. Secretion of tumor necrosis factor-alpha by mouse peritoneal macrophages in the presence of dental sealers, Sealapex and Endomethasone. Journal of Endodontics. 2004, 30(7), 534-537. https://doi.org/10.1097/00004770-200407000-00017

POMEL, L., et al. Apical leakage of four endodontic sealers. Journal of Endodontics. 2003, 29(3), 208-210. https://doi.org/10.1097/00004770-200303000-00011

RICUCCI, D. Apical limit f root canal instrumentation and obturation, part 1. Literature review. International Endodontic Journal. 1998, 31(6), 344-393. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2591.1998.00184.x

RICUCCI, D. and LANGELAND, K. Apical limit f root canal instrumentation and obturation, part 2. A histological study. International Endodontic Journal. 1998, 31(6), 394-409. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2591.1998.00183.x

ROLLISON, S., BARNETT, F. and STEVENS, R.H. Efficacy of bacterial removal from instrumented root canals in vitro related to instrumentation technique and size. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, and Endodontics. 2002, 94(3), 366-371. https://doi.org/10.1067/moe.2002.126164

DE CARVALHO MACIEL, A.C. and ZACCARO SCELZA, M.F. Efficacy of automated versus hand instrumentation during root canal retreatment: an ex vivo study. International Endodontic Journal. 2006, 39(10), 779-784. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2591.2006.01148.x

SCHAEFFER, M.A., WHITE, R.R. and WALTON, R.E. Determining the optimal obturation length: a meta-analysis of literature. Journal of Endodontics. 2005, 31(4), 271–274. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.don.0000140585.52178.78

SCHILDER, H. Filling root canals in three dimensions. Journal of Endodontics. 2006, 32(4), 281-290. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joen.2006.02.007

SILVA, E.A.B., et al. Evaluation of effect of foraminal enlargement of necrotic teeth on postoperative symptoms: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Endodontics. 2017, 43(12), 1969-1977. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joen.2017.07.014

SILVA, J.M., et al. Influence of working length and foraminal enlargement on foramen morphology and sealing ability. Indian Journal of Dental Research. 2016, 27(1), 66-72. https://doi.org/10.4103/0970-9290.179834

SILVA-SANTOS, A.M., et al. Foraminal deformation after foraminal enlargement with rotary and reciprocating kinematics: A scanning electronic microscopy study. Journal of Endodontics. 2018, 44(1), 145-148. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joen.2017.08.013

SOUSA-NETO, M.D., et al. Root canal preparation using micro-computed tomography analysis: a literature review. Brazilian Oral Research. 2018, 32, 20-43. https:// doi.org/10.1590/1807-3107bor-2018.vol32.0066

SOUZA, R.A. Clinical and radiographic evaluation of the relation between the apical limit of root canal filling and the success in Endodontics. Part 1. Brazilian Endodontic Journal. 1998, 3, 43-48.

SOUZA-FILHO, F.J., BENATTI, O. and ALMEIDA, O.P. Influence of the enlargement of the apical foramen in periapical repair of contaminated teeth of dog. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, and Endodontics. 1987, 64(4), 480-484. https://doi.org/10.1016/0030-4220(87)90157-5

TAN, B.T. and MESSER, H.H. The quality of apical canal preparation using hand rotary instruments with specific criteria for enlargement based on initial apical file size. Journal of Endodontics. 2002, 28(9), 658-664. https://doi.org/10.1097/00004770-200209000-00008

USMAN, N., BAUMGARTNER, J.C. and MARSHALL, J.G. Influence of instrument size on root canal debridement. Journal of Endodontics. 2004, 30(2), 110-112. https://doi.org/10.1097/00004770-200402000-00012

VENTURI, M. An ex-vivo evaluation of a gutta-percha filling technique when used with two endodontic sealers: Analysis of the filling of main and lateral canals. Journal of Endodontics. 2008, 34(9), 1105-1110. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joen.2008.06.017

WU, M.K., FAN, B. and WESSELINK, P.R. Leakage along apical root fillings in curved canals. Part I. Effects of apical trans- portation on seal of root fillings. Journal Endodontics. 2000, 26(4), 210–216. https://doi.org/ 10.1097/00004770-200004000-00003 ISSN 0099-2399

WU, M.K., et al. Does the first file to bind correspond to the diameter of the canal in the apical region? International Endodontic Journal. 2002, 35(3), 264-267. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2591.2002.00474.x

WU, M.K., et al. Prevalence and extent of long oval canals in the apical third. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, and Endodontics. 2000, 89(6), 739-743. https://doi.org/10.1067/moe.2000.106344




How to Cite

ALBINO SOUZA, M., DE CARLI, J.P., TOLFO RODRIGUES, F., PIUCO, L.., FRICK BISCHOFF, K.., BERVIAN, J.., ZANDONÁ, J.., MARTA DOFFO WINOCUR, E.. and DE JESUS SOARES , A., 2021. Evaluation of apical transportation and apical root sealing in root canals prepared with mtwo rotary system with and without apical enlargement – an in vitro study. Bioscience Journal [online], vol. 37, pp. e37004. [Accessed28 February 2024]. DOI 10.14393/BJ-v37n0a2021-56141. Available from: https://seer.ufu.br/index.php/biosciencejournal/article/view/56141.



Health Sciences