Effectiveness of methods for cleaning arch wire: an in vitro study





Bacteria, Hygiene, Orthodontics.


The aim of this study was to evaluate various methods of removing bacterial and fungus biofilm, to simulate orthodontic arch wires cleaning before reinsertion in the patients appliance. Rectangular Nickel Titanium (NiTi), Stainless Steel (SS) and Titanium Molybdenum (TMA) wires were divided into five groups, then contaminated with strains of Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicas.  Four segments of each group served as control and were not contaminated. Six cleanings methods were used to remove the biofilm: cotton roll and a chemical agent (chlorhexidine, sodium hypochlorite, 70% alcohol), cotton roll and  water, steel woll and immersion on enzymatic detergent. There was a control group not decontaminated Then wires were placed in broth separately, and after an incubation period the optical density (OD) was measured, observing whether there was microbial growth. A wire segment of each subgroup of SS 3M® was taken to the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) for visualization of the treatment response. The results were submitted to one-way ANOVA test and Tukey post-test. With the exception of 70% alcohol, the disinfection means behaved similarly regardless the type of wire. Two percent Chlorhexidine and 1% Sodium Hypochlorite totally removed the microorganisms while other agents left a high microbial concentration. Chemical cleaning is necessary to remove biofilm in orthodontic wires; 1% Sodium Hypochlorite and 2% Chlorhexidine are good disinfectants for this purpose.


Download data is not yet available.


ADDY, M.W.C., et al. The effect of orthodontic appliances on the distribution of Candida and plaque in adolescents. British Journal of Orthodontics, 1982, 9(3), 158-163. https://doi.org/10.1179/bjo.9.3.158

ANDRADE, D.C.C.D., ARAGÃO, C.C.V. and FURLAN, C.M. Avaliação da estabilidade fisico-química da solução de hipoclorito de sódio a 0,5% utilizada pela FarmaUSCS, e de sua eficácia bactericida sobre Staphylococcus aureus e Escherichia coli. Revista Brasileira de Ciências da Saúde. 2009, 7(21),16-25. https://doi.org/10.13037/rbcs.vol7n21.296

ANHOURY, P., et al. Microbial Profile on Metallic and Ceramic Bracket Materials. The Angle Orthodontist. 2002, 72(4), 338-343. https://doi.org/10.1043/0003-3219(2002)072<0338:MPOMAC>2.0.CO;2

AYLIFFE, G.A., BABB, J.R. and QUORAISHI, A.H. A test for 'hygienic' hand disinfection. Journal of Clinical Pathology. 1978, 31(10), 923-928. https://doi.org/10.1136/jcp.31.10.923

BABONI, F.B., et al. Influence of cigarette smoke condensate on cariogenic and candidal biofilm formation on orthodontic materials. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics. 2010, 138(4), 427-434. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajodo.2009.05.023

BAMBACE, A.M.J., et al. Eficácia de soluções aquosas de clorexidina para desinfecção de superfícies. Revista biociências. 2003, 9(2), 73-81.

Bastos, J.R.M., Henriques, J.F.C. and Olympio, K.P.K. Prevenção de cárie dentária e doença periodontal em pacientes sob tratamento ortodôntico. São Paulo: Ed. Edusp, 2006.

BELL, J.A., et al. The effectiveness of two disinfectants on denture base acrylic resin with an organic load. Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. 1989, 61(5), 580-583. https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-3913(89)90280-1

DA SILVA, F.C., et al. Effectiveness of Six Different Disinfectants on Removing Five Microbial Species and Effects on the Topographic Characteristics of Acrylic Resin. Journal of Prosthodontics. 2008, 17(8), 627-633. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-849X.2008.00358.x

DAEMS, J., CELIS, J.P. and WILLEMS, G. Morphological characterization of as received and in vivo orthodontic stainless steel archwires. European Journal of Orthodontics. 2009, 31(3), 260-265. https://doi.org/10.1093/ejo/cjn104

DEWHIRST, F.E., et al. The human oral microbiome. Journal of Bacteriology. 2010, 192(19), 5002-5017. https://doi.org/10.1128/JB.00542-10

ELIADES, T. and BOURAUEL, C. Intraoral aging of orthodontic materials: the picture we miss and its clinical relevance. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics. 2005, 127(4), 403-412. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajodo.2004.09.015

GAIKWAD, A.M., JOSHI, A.A. and NADGERE, J.B. Orthodontic wire loop for engaging dental floss or orthodontic elastomeric chain in the open tray implant impression technique. Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. 2020, 124(4):500-501. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.prosdent.2020.01.041

GIBBONS, R.J. and NYGAARD, M. Synthesis of insoluble dextran and its significance in the formation of gelatinous deposits by plaque-forming streptococci. Archives of Oral Biology. 1968, 13(10), 1249-1262. https://doi.org/10.1016/0003-9969(68)90081-2

GIULIANA, G., et al. In vitro activities of antimicrobial agents against Candida species. Oral surgery, oral medicine, oral pathology, oral radiology and endodontics. 1999, 87(1), 44-49. https://doi.org/10.1016/s1079-2104(99)70293-3

GOMEZ, C., ABELLAN, R. and PALMA, J.C. Efficacy of photodynamic therapy vs ultrasonic scaler for preventing gingival inflammation and white spot lesions during orthodontic treatment. Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy. 2018, 24, 377-383. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pdpdt.2018.11.001

GONG, Y., LU, J. and DING, X. Clinical, microbiologic, and immunologic factors of orthodontic treatment-induced gingival enlargement. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics., 2011, 140(1), 58-64. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajodo.2010.02.033

Guidelines for infection control in the dental office and the commercial dental laboratory. Council on Dental Therapeutics. Council on Prosthetic Services and Dental Laboratory Relations. Journal of the American Dental Association. 1985, 110(6), 969-972. https://doi.org/10.14219/jada.archive.1985.0016

GÜNDÜZ ARSLAN, S., et al. One-year follow-up of the effect of fixed orthodontic treatment on colonization by oral candida. Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine. 2008, 37(1), 26-29. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0714.2007.00574.x

HAGG, U., et al. The effect of fixed orthodontic appliances on the oral carriage of Candida species and Enterobacteriaceae. European Journal of Orthodontics. 2004, 26(6), 623-629. https://doi.org/10.1093/ejo/26.6.623

HIBINO, K., et al. The effects of orthodontic appliances on Candida in the human mouth. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry. 2009, 19(5), 301-308. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-263X.2009.00988.x

HSIEH, S.C., et al. The Antibacterial Efficacy and In Vivo Toxicity of Sodium Hypochlorite and Electrolyzed Oxidizing (EO) Water-Based Endodontic Irrigating Solutions. Materials (Basel), 2020, 13(2), 260. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13020260

KELES, A., ORS, S.A. and YILMAZ, Z. Effect of various solutions on the removal of orange-brown precipitate formed by interaction of sodium hypochlorite and chlorhexidine with or without ultrasonic activationZ. Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice. 2020, 23(3), 381-385. https://doi.org/10.4103/njcp.njcp_527_19

LESSA, F.C., et al. In-vivo evaluation of the bacterial contamination and disinfection of acrylic baseplates of removable orthodontic appliances. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics. 2007, 131(6), 705.e711-717. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajodo.2006.09.042

LEUNG, N.M., CHEN, R. and RUDNEY, J.D. Oral bacteria in plaque and invading buccal cells of young orthodontic patients. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics. 2006, 130(6), 698.e611-698. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajodo.2006.05.028

LIMA, E.M., et al. Effect of enzymatic and NaOCl treatments on acrylic roughness and on biofilm accumulation. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation. 2006, 33(5), 356-362. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2842.2005.01564.x

MARQUES, I.S., et al. Debris, roughness and friction of stainless steel archwires following clinical use. Angle Orthodontist. 2010, 80(3), 521-527. https://doi.org/10.2319/081109-457.1

MARTY COONEY, R., et al. The use of 3.15% chlorhexidine gluconate/70% alcohol hub disinfection to prevent central line-associated bloodstream infections in dialysis patients. British Journal of Nursing. 2020, 29(2), S24-S26. https://doi.org/10.12968/bjon.2020.29.2.S24

MYKLEBUST, S. Comparative antibacterial effectiveness of seven hand antiseptics. Scandinavian Journal of Dental Research. 1985, 93(6), 546-554. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0722.1985.tb01353.x

MYKLEBUST, S. Soap pH and the effectiveness of alcoholic hand antiseptics. Scandinavian Journal of Dental Research. 1989, 97(5), 451-455. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0722.1989.tb01460.x

NARANJO, A.A., et al. Changes in the subgingival microbiota and periodontal parameters before and 3 months after bracket placement. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics. 2006, 130(3), 275.e217-222. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajodo.2005.10.022

NORMANDO, D., et al. Archwire cleaning after intraoral ageing: the effects on debris, roughness, and friction. European Journal of Orthodontics. 2011, 35(2):223-9. https://doi.org/10.1093/ejo/cjr104

PELLIZZARO, D., et al. Effectiveness of mechanical brushing with different denture cleansing agents in reducing in vitro Candida albicans biofilm viability. Brazilian Dental Journal, 2012, 23(5), 547-554. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0103-64402012000500013

RUTALA, W.A. APIC guideline for selection and use of disinfectants. American Journal of Infection Control. 1990, 18(2), 99-117. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0196-6553(96)90066-8

SAMPAIO, G.M., et al. Antimicrobial, mechanical and biocompatibility analysis of chlorhexidine digluconate-modified cements. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Dentistry, 2020, 12(2), e178-e186. https://doi.org/10.4317/jced.56308

SANCHEZ, E. and MACDONALD, G. Decontaminating dental instruments: testing the effectiveness of selected methods. Journal of the American Dental Association. 1995, 126(3), 359-362, 364, 366 passim. https://doi.org/10.14219/jada.archive.1995.0181

VENTURELLI, A.C., et al. Avaliação microbiológica da contaminação residual em diferentes tipos de alicates ortodônticos após desinfecção com álcool 70%. Revista Dental Press de Ortodontia e Ortopedia Facial. 2009, 14, 43-52. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1415-54192009000400005

WALDER, M., MYRBACK, K.E. and NILSSON, B. A method to evaluate the cleaning and disinfectant action of surface disinfectants. Journal of Hospital Infection. 1989, 13(2), 149-159. https://doi.org/10.1016/0195-6701(89)90021-2

WATNICK, P. and KOLTER, R. Biofilm, city of microbes. Journal of Bacteriology. 2000, 182(10), 2675-2679. https://doi.org/10.1128/jb.182.10.2675-2679.2000

ZACHRISSON, S. and ZACHRISSON, B.U. Gingival condition associated with orthodontic treatment. Angle Orthodontist, 1972, 42(1), 26-34. https://doi.org/10.1043/0003-3219(1972)042<0026:GCAWOT>2.0.CO;2

ZARE JAVID, A., et al. Effects of the Consumption of Probiotic Yogurt Containing Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 on the Levels of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli in Saliva of Students with Initial Stages of Dental Caries: A Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial. Caries Research. 2020, 54(1), 68-74. https://doi.org/10.1159/000504164




How to Cite

PORTES CANONGIA, A.C.., ALVIANO MORENO, D.S.., ABRAÇADO, L.G.., PITHON, M.M. and ARAÚJO, M.T.., 2021. Effectiveness of methods for cleaning arch wire: an in vitro study. Bioscience Journal [online], vol. 37, pp. e37017. [Accessed22 February 2024]. DOI 10.14393/BJ-v37n0a2021-55339. Available from: https://seer.ufu.br/index.php/biosciencejournal/article/view/55339.



Health Sciences