Phenol compound content and antibacterial activity of gaharu leaf extract products (Aquilaria malaccensis)


  • Budi Santoso Sriwijaya University
  • Neni Anggraini Sriwijaya University
  • Kiki Yuliati Sriwijaya University
  • Aldila Din Pangawikan Padjadjaran University



Ethanol, Maceration, Phenol, Solvent, Soxhlet.


Gaharu leaf extract produces yield extraction, phenol compound, and antibacterial activity in diverse quantities. The purpose of this research was to investigate the influence of the extraction method and type of solvent on the extractability of the polyphenol component and the antibacterial activity of gaharu leaves. Extraction was done through maceration and Soxhlet methods by using solvents of hexane, ethyl acetate, and ethanol. The extraction result showed that the highest yield value of 18.4% was found on the treatment of a combination of ethanol solvent and Soxhlet method. The total content of phenol and tannin of gaharu leaf extract was in the range of 11.2 to 18.62mg. mL-1 and 12.82 to 13.41%, respectively. Antibacterial activity of gaharu leaf extract on the Gram-positive test of Staphylococcus aureus was higher than that of the Gram-negative test of Escherichia coli having a value of zone of inhibition in the range of 5.33 to 6.33 mm and 4.00 to 5.00 mm, respectively.


Download data is not yet available.


ALKALTHAM, M.S., et al Effect of microwave and oven roasting methods on total phenol, antioxidant activity, phenolic compounds, and fatty acid compositions of coffee beans. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation. 2020, 44(11), 1-7. 10.1111/jfpp.14874

BATUBARA, R., et al. The screening of phytochemical and antioxidant activity of agarwood leaves (Aquilaria malaccensis) from two sites in North Sumatra, Indonesia. Biodiversitas. 2020, 21(4), 1588-1596.

COELHO, J.M.P., et al. Extraction of natural antioxidants from strawberry guava leaf by conventional and non-conventional techniques. Chemical Engineering Communications . 2021, 208(8), 1131-1142.

GALVAO, M.A.M., et al. Evaluation of the folin-ciocalteu method and quantification of total tannins in stem barks and pods from Libidibia ferrea (Mart. ex Tul) L. P. queiroz. Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology. 2018, 61, e18170586.

HATAM, S.F., SURYANTO, E. and ABIDJULU. Antioxidant Activity of Pineapple Skin Extraction (Ananas comosus (L) Merr). Journal of Pharmacy Science. 2013, 2(1), 8-11.

ISMAIL, A.R., et al. Evaluation of a naturally derived tannin extracts biopolymer additive in drilling muds for high-temperature well applications. Journal of Petroleum Exploration and Production Technology. 2020, 10, 623-639.

JADID, N., et al. Antioxidant activities of different solvent extracts of Piper retrofractum Vahl. using DPPH assay. AIP Conference Proceedings. 2017, 1854, 020019. 10.1063/1.4985410

KAMONWANNASIT, S., et al. Antibacterial activity of Aquilaria crassna leaf extract against Staphylococcus epidermidis by disruption of cell wall. Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobial. 2013, 12(20), 2-7. 10.1186/1476-0711-12-20

KRATCHANOVA, M., et al. Evaluation of antioxidant activity of medicinal plants containing polyphenol compounds: comparison of two extraction systems. The journal of the polish biochemical society and of the polish academy of science. 2010, 57(2), 229-234. 10.18388/abp.2010_2399

LUBIS, M.R. and M. NOVA. Leaching of oil from tuna fish liver by using solvent of methyl-ethyl ketone. Journal of chemical engineering and environmental. 2013, 9(4), 188-196. 10.23955/rkl.v9i4.1233

MISNA and DIANA, K. Antibacterial activity extract of garlic (Allium cepa L.) skin against Staphylococcus aureus. Galenika Journal of Pharmacy. 2016, 2(2), 138-144.

PAMBAYUN, R., GARDJITO, M., SUDARMADJI, S. and KUSWANTO, K.R. Phenolic content and antibacterial properties of various extracts of gambir (Uncaria gambir Roxb). Indonesian Journal of Pharmacy. 2007, 18(3), 141-146.

PAMBAYUN, R., GARDJITO, M., SUDARMADJI, S., and KUSWANTO, K.R. Phenolic Content of Gambir Leaf Extract (Uncaria gambir Roxb) and its Antibacterial Activity. Agritech. 2007, 27(2), 89-94.

PARWATA, I.M.O.A., MANUABA, I.B.P., YASA, I.W.P.S. and WITA, I.W. Gaharu leaf extract water reduce MDA and 8-OHdG levels and increase activities SOD and catalase in wistar rats provided maximum physical activity. Journal of Medical Sciences. 2016, 5(3), 434-438.

SURJANTO, BATUBARA, R., HANUM, T.I. and PULUNGAN, W. Safety test of agarwood leaves tea (Aquilaria malaccencis Lamk.) through skin sensitization test on albino rabbit. Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences. 2019, 7(22), 3896-3899.

SURJIANTO, BATUBARA, R., HANUM, T.I. and PULUNGAN, W. Phytochemical and antioxidant activity of gaharu leaf tea (Aquilaria malaccensis Lamk) as raw material of tea from middle Tapanuli Regency, North Sumatera Province. IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science. 2019, 260, 012101. 10.1088/1755-1315/260/1/012101

TAGHIZADEH, S.F., et al. Phenolic profile and antioxidant activity of Pistacia vera var. Sarakhs hull and kernel extracts: the influence of different solvents. Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization. 2018, 12, 2138-2144.

VONGSAK, B., et al. Maximizing total phenolics, total flavonoids contents and antioxidant activity of Moringa oleifera leaf extract by the appropriate extraction method. Industrial Crop and Products. 2013, 44, 566-571.




How to Cite

BUDI SANTOSO, NENI ANGGRAINI, KIKI YULIATI and ALDILA DIN PANGAWIKAN, 2022. Phenol compound content and antibacterial activity of gaharu leaf extract products (Aquilaria malaccensis). Bioscience Journal [online], vol. 38, pp. e37009. [Accessed28 February 2024]. DOI 10.14393/BJ-v38n0a2022-54813. Available from:



Biological Sciences