Efficacy of essential oils in the management of soft rot caused by Pectobacterium aroidearum in lettuce
Keywords:Alternative control, Curative control, Essential oil of sage, Lactuca sativa, Preventive control.
Lettuce is susceptible to several diseases, especially soft rot caused by bacteria of the genus Pectobacterium. Due to the adaptability of this pathogen and the lack of disease control registered for the crop, the objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of essential oils in the management of soft rot caused by P. aroidearum in lettuce. The study was developed at the Universidade do Estado da Bahia, Juazeiro, BA, Brazil, and the essential oils (EOs) of orange, bergamot, lemongrass, palmarosa, citronella, cloves, tea tree, rosemary, sage, and ginger were used in concentrations of 0.25; 0.5; 0.75 and 1.0% to assess the in vitro growth inhibition of the bacterium. Subsequently, the curative effects of the disease were evaluated by applying the EOs that obtained the best results in vitro in lettuce plants of the susceptible variety “Mônica”. The treatments were applied, via spraying, 12 hours after inoculation using the bite method with bacterial suspension. The best in vivo treatment was selected to assess its preventive and curative activity, as well as to find the ideal concentration for reducing epidemiological variables and chromatographic characterization. The EOs of palmarosa, sage, citronella, lemongrass, and cloves (0.25%), and that of sage (0.75%), inhibited bacterial growth in vitro. The EO of salvia showed the best results in vivo, inhibiting the growth of the disease in concentrations of 0.50 and 0.75%, so it was selected for the preventive and curative control tests alone. The preventive treatment was not efficient for the management of soft rot in lettuce, however, from the regression analysis, a concentration of 0.64% of the salvia EO was found as a potential for curative control of this bacteriosis, as it reduces the incidence and severity of the disease. Linalyl acetate and linalool were found in higher concentrations in the chromatographic analysis. These components, probably, conferred the bactericidal capacity of the EO of sage, being potential for the use in the control of P. aroidearum in lettuce.
AGUIAR, E.M.M.M., et al. Hidrolato de Pau Rosa (Aniba rosaeodora duckei Kostermans) como insumo para cosméticos. Scientia Amazonia. 2017, 6(1), 94-106.
AL-QUDAH, M.A., et al. Flavonoid and phenolic compounds from Salvia palaestina L. growing wild in Jordan and their antioxidant activities. Phytochemistry. 2014, 99(1), 115-120. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phytochem.2014.01.001
BARROSO, K.A., et al. First report of Pectobacterium aroidearum causing soft rot in lettuce and Chinese cabbage in Brazil. Plant Disease. 2019, 103(12), 3274. https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-12-18-2237-PDN
BERIAM, L.O.S. Doenças bacterianas em hortaliças. Biológico. 2007, 69(2), 81-84.
BURT, S.A., et al. Increase in activity of essential oil components carvacrol and thymol against Escherichia coli O157:H7 by addition of food stabilizers. Journal of food protection. 2005, 68(5), 919-926. https://doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X-68.5.919
CONN, H.J. Validity of the genus Alcaligenes. Journal of Bacteriology. 1942, 44, 353-360.
CONNER, D.E., 1993. Naturally occurring compounds. In: DAVIDSON, P. and BRANEN, A.L. (eds.). Antimicrobials in foods. New York: Marcel Dekker, pp. 441-68.
COSTA, C.M.G.R., et al. Óleo essencial de citronela no controle da bactéria fitopatogênica Erwinia carotovora. Tecnologia & Ciência Agropecuária. 2008, 2(12), 11-14.
DAGOSTIN, S., et al. Salvia officinalis extract can protect grapevine against Plasmopara viticola. Plant Disease. 2010, 94(5), 575-580. https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-94-5-0575
EDRIS, A.E. Pharmaceutical and therapeutic potentials o essential oils and their individual volatile constituents: a review. Phytotherapy Research. 2007, 21(4), 308–323. https://doi.org/10.1002/ptr.2072
GARDAN, L., et al. Elevation of three subspecies of Pectobacterium carotovorum to species level: Pectobacterium atrosepticum sp. nov., Pectobacterium betavasculorum sp. nov. and Pectobacterium wasabiae sp. nov. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 2003, 53(2), 381–391. https://doi.org/10.1099/ijs.0.02423-0
HAUBEN, L., et al. Phylogenetic position of phytopathogens within the Enterobacteriaceae. Systematic and Applied Microbiology. 1998, 21(3), 384-397. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0723-2020(98)80048-9
HUANG, Q. and LAKSMAN, D.K. Effect of clove oil on plant pathogenic bacteria and bacterial wilt of tomato and geranium. Journal of Plant Pathology. 2010, 92(3), 701-707. https://doi.org/10.4454/JPP.V92I3.316
HUSSAIN, A.I., et al. Composition, antioxidant, and chemotherapeutic properties of the essential oils from two Origanum species growing in Pakistan. Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia. 2011, 21(6), 943–952. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0102-695X2011005000165
JEONG, M.R., et al. Essential oil prepared from Cymbopogon citrates exerted an antimicrobial activity against plant pathogenic and medical microorganisms. Mycobiology. 2009, 37(1), 48-52. https://doi.org/10.4489/MYCO.2009.37.1.048
JONES, L.R. A soft rot of carrot and other vegetable caused by Bacillus carotororus. Victoria Agric. Exp. Station Ann. Rep. 1901, 13, 299–332.
JOSHI, J.J., et al. Plant phenolic acids affect the virulence of Pectobacterium aroidearum and P. carotovorum ssp. brasiliense via quorum sensing regulation. Molecular plant pathology. 2016, 17(4), 487-500. https://doi.org/10.1111/mpp.12295
KUBHEKA, G.C., et al. Colonization patterns of a mCherry-tagged Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliense strain in potato plants. Phytopathology. 2013, 103(12), 1268–1279. https://doi.org/10.1094/PHYTO-02-13-0049-R
KUZMA, L., et al. Antimicrobial activity of diterpenoids from hairy roots of Salvia sclarea L.: Salvipisone as a potential anti-biofilm agent active against antibiotic-resistant Staphylococci. Phytomedicine. 2007, 14(1), 31-35. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2005.10.008
LUCAS, G.C., et al. Antibacterial activity of essential oils on Xanthomonas vesicatoria and control of bacterial spot in tomato. Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira, 2012, 47(3), 351-359. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0100-204X2012000300006
MARIANO, R.L.R. and SOUZA, E.B. Manual de práticas em fitobacteriologia. 3rd ed. Recife: Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, 2016.
MARTINS, E.S.C.S., et al. Atividade antibacteriana de óleos essenciais de citronela, alecrim e erva-cidreira no controle in vitro da bactéria Ralstonia solanacearum em tomateiro. Tecnologia & Ciência Agropecuária. 2010, 3(3), 29-34.
MICHEREFF, S.J., et al. Ecologia e manejo de patógenos radiculares em solos tropicais. 1st ed. Recife: UFRPE, Imprensa Universitária, 2005.
MILITELLO, M., et al. Chemical composition, and antibacterial potential of Artemisia arborescens L. essential oil. Current Microbiology. 2011, 62(4), 1274-1281. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00284-010-9855-3
NABHAN, S., et al. Pectobacterium aroidearum sp. nov., a soft rot pathogen with preference for monocotyledonous plants. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 2013, 63(7), 2520–2525. https://doi.org/10.1099/ijs.0.046011-0
OPARAEKE, A.M. Collection, Identification and screening of indigenous herbal extracts and waste matter for control of insect pests of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) Walp. Zaria, Nigeria: Ahmadu Bello University, 2004.
PARET, M.L., et al. Effect of plant essential oils on Ralstonia solanacearum race 4 and bacterial wilt of edible ginger. Plant Disease. 2010, 94(5), 521-527. https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-94-5-0521
POP, A.V., et al. Determination of Antioxidant Capacity and Antimicrobial Activity of Selected Salvia Species. Bulletin UASVM Food Science and Technology. 2016, 73(1), 14-18. http://dx.doi.org/10.15835/buasvmcn-fst:11965
RAID, R.N., 1997. Soft rot of lettuce. In: DAVIS, R.M., SUBBARAO, K.V., RAID, R.N. and KURTZ, E.A. (eds.). Compendium of lettuce diseases. St. Paul: APS Press, pp. 30-31.
REN, J., PETZOLDT, R. and DICKSON, M.H. Genetics, and population improvement resistance to bacterial soft rot Chinese cabbage. Euphytica. 2001, 117(3), 197-207. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1026541724001
SALA, F.C. and COSTA, C.P.D. Retrospectiva e tendência da alfacicultura brasileira. Horticultura Brasileira. 2012, 30(2), 187-194. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0102-05362012000200002
SARMENTO-BRUM, R.B.C., et al. Efeito de óleos essenciais de plantas medicinais sobre a antracnose do sorgo. Bioscience Journal. 2013, 29(5), 1549-1557.
SEDIYAMA, M.A.N., et al. Uso de fertilizantes orgânicos no cultivo de alface americana (Lactuca sativa L.) 'Kaiser'. Revista Brasileira de Agropecuária Sustentável. 2016, 6(2), 66-74. http://dx.doi.org/10.21206/rbas.v6i2.308
SHANER, G. and FINNEY, R.E. The effect of nitrogen fertilization on the expression of slow-mildewing resistance in Knox wheat. Phytopathology. 1977, 67(8), 1051-1056. http://doi.org/10.1094/Phyto-67-1051
SILVA, C.L., et al. Óleos essenciais e extratos vegetais no controle da podridão mole em alface crespa. Horticultura Brasileira. 2012, 30(4), 632-638. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0102-05362012000400012
SILVA, O.E., MARTINS, S.J. and ALVES, E. Essential oils for the control of bacterial speck in tomato crop. African Journal of Agricultural Research. 2014, 9(34), 2624-2629. https://doi.org/10.5897/AJAR2014.8918
SILVEIRA, S.M.D., et al. Composição química e atividade antibacteriana dos óleos essenciais de Cymbopogon winterianus (citronela), Eucalyptus paniculata (eucalipto) e Lavandula angustifolia (lavanda). Revista do Instituto Adolfo Lutz. 2012, 71(3), 462-470.
SIMEON, A.U. and ABUBAKAR, A. Evaluation of some plant extracts for the control of bacterial soft rot of tubers. Journal of Experimental Agriculture International. 2014, 4(12), 1869-1876. https://doi.org/10.9734/AJEA/2014/12309
SMITH, E.F. and TOWNSEND, C.O. A plant-tumor of bacterial origin. Science. 1907, 25, 671-673.
VAN HALL, C.J.J. Bijdragen tot de Kennis der Bakteriele Plantenziekten. Zeitschrift Für Pflanzenkrankheiten. 1903, 13(2), 116-118. https://www.jstor.org/stable/43219527
VIUDA-MARTOS, M., et al. Chemical composition, and antioxidant and anti-Listeria activities of essential oils obtained from some Egyptian plants. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2010, 58(16), 9063-9070. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf101620c
ZAIDI-YAHIAOUI, R., et al. Potential of Olea europeae leaves and cake and Salvia officinalis for controlling soft rot potato tubers. 1st ed. Alfortville: Association Française de Protection des Plantes (AFPP), 2009.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2021 Karol Alves Barroso, Xênia Bastos de Oliveira, Márcia Ferreira Queiroz, Camila de Oliveira Almeida, Vitor Prates Lorenzo, Flávia Cartaxo Ramalho Vilar, Cristiane Domingos da Paz, Ana Rosa Peixoto
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.