Biological activity of entomopathogenic nematodes on Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae)




Biological control, Infective Juvenile, Heterorhabditidae, Steinernematidae.


Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) is one of the main pests of fruit farming, and entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) represent an important control tool of this species. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the biological activity of different isolate against A. fraterculus larvae and adults. Bioassays were performed using a suspension of three isolates of Heterorhabditis amazonensis IBCB 24, Steinernema carpocapsae IBCB 02 and Steinernema feltiae IBCB 47 at six concentrations (control - without nematodes), 50, 150, 300, 500, 1000 and 1500 infective juveniles (IJs)/mL of water per 3º instar larvae. It was verified the susceptibility of larvae of A. fraterculus to isolates of EPNs and a significant increase of the pupal mortality in the function of the concentration of IJs inoculated by larva (above 75%). After the dissection of pupae and adults of A. fraterculus from infected larvae, the concentration of 1500 IJs/mL of EPNs provided the highest rate of multiplication of IJs by insect, equating to maximum concentration tested 1500 IJs/mL. Adults of A. fraterculus from larvae infected with EPNs longevity of five days, being less than adults from uninfected larvae by IJs (135 days). H. amazonensis IBCB 24, S. carpocapsae IBCB 02, and S. feltiae IBCB 47 proved to be promising as agents of biological control of A. fraterculus.


Download data is not yet available.


BARBOSA-NEGRISOLI, C.R.C., et al. Efficacy of indigenous entomopathogenic nematodes (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae, Steinernematidae), from Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, against Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in peach orchards. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology. 2009, 102, 6-13.

BORGES, R., et al. Efeito de iscas tóxicas sobre Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Bioassay. 2015, 10, 1-8.

BRIDA, A.L., et al. Entomopathogenic nematodes in agricultural areas in Brazil. Scientific Report. 2017, 7, 1-7.

CASTILLO, J.C., REYNOLDS, S.E. and ELEFTHERIANOS, L. Insect immune responses to nematode parasites. Trends in Parasitology. 2011, 27, 537-547.

CHERGUI, S., et al. Efficacy of Turkish isolate of Steinernema feltiae (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae) in controlling the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), under laboratory conditions. Egyptian Journal of Biological Pest Control. 2019, 29, 60-71, 2019. https://doi:10.1186/s41938-019-0162.

DIAS, P.V.C., DOLINSKI, C. and MOLINA, A.J.P. Influência da dose de juvenis infectantes e da massa de larvas de Galleria mellonella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) na produção in vivo de Heterorhabditis baujardi LPP7 (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae). Nematologia Brasileira. 2008, 32 (4), 317-321.

DIAS, N.P., et al. Nível de infestação de moscas-das-frutas em faixa de fronteira, no Rio Grande do Sul. Revista Ceres. 2013, 60, 589-593.

DOWDS, B.C.A. and PETERS, A. Virulence mechanisms. In: GAUGLER, R. Entomopathogenic nematology. (Eds.). New York: CABI. 2002, pp.79-98.

FOELKEL, E., MONTEIRO, L.B. and VOSS, M. Virulence of nematodes against larvae of the south American fruit fly in laboratory using soil from Porto Amazonas, Paraná, Brazil, as substrate. Ciência Rural. 2016, 46, 405-410.

FOELKEL, E., et al. Isolation of entomopathogenic nematode in an apple orchard in southern Brazil and its virulence to Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) larvae, under laboratory conditions. Brazilian Journal of Biology. 2017, 77, 22-28.

GARCIA, F.R.M., et al. Biological control of fruit flies of the genus Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae): current status and perspectives. In: LEWIS DAVENPORT (Org.). Biological control: methods, applications, and challenges. Biological control of fruit flies of the Genus Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae): current status and perspectives, Hauppauge: Nova Science Publishers. 2017, pp. 26-35.

GREWAL, P.S., NARDO, E.A.B. and AGUILLERA, M.M. Entomopathogenic nematodes: potential for exploration and use in South America. Neotropical Entomology. 2001, 30, 191-205.

HARTER, W.R., et al. Toxicities and residual effects of toxic baits containing spinosad or malathion to control the adult Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae). Florida Entomologist. 2015, 98, 202-208.

HEVE, W.K., et al. Biological control potential of entomopathogenic nematodes for management of Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa Loew (Tephritidae). Pest Management Science. 2016, 73, 1220-1228.

JACKSON, T.A. Factors in the success and failure of microbial control agents for soil-dwelling pests. Journal of Integrated Pest Management. 1999, 4, 281-285.

JAMES, M., MALAN, A.P. and ADDISON, P. Surveying, and screening South African entomopathogenic nematodes for the control of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). Crop Protection. 2018, 105, 41-48.

LABAUDE, S. and GRIFFIN, C.T. Transmission success of entomopathogenic nematodes used in pest control. Insects. 2018, 9(2), 72-79.

LEZAMA-GUTIÉRREZ, R., et al. Efficacy of Steinernematid nematodes (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae) on the suppression of Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) larvae in soil of differing textures: laboratory and field trials. Journal of agricultural and urban entomology. 2006, 23, 41-49.

LEWIS, E., et al. Behavioral ecology of entomopathogenic nematodes. Biological Control. 2006, 38, 66-79.

MACHADO, L. A. Criação de insetos em laboratório para utilização em pesquisas de controle biológico. In. CRUZ, B. B. (Eds). Pragas das Culturas e Controle Biológico. Campinas: Fundação Cargill. 1988, pp. 8-35.

NAVARRO-LLOPIS, V., PRIMO, J. and VACAS, S. Efficacy of attract-and-kill devices for the control of Ceratitis capitata. Pest Management Science. 2012, 69, 478- 482.

NELDER, J.A. and WEDDERBURN, R.W.M. Generalized linear models. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series. 1972, 135, 370-384.

NUNES, A.M., et al. Dietas artificiais para a criação de larvas e adultos da mosca-das-frutas sul-americana. Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira. 2013, 48, 1309-1314.

POINAR, G.O. and GREWAL, P.S. History of entomopathogenic nematology. Journal of Nematology. 2012, 44, 153-161.

RODRIGUES-TRENTINI, F. Mecanismos de defesa e controle de Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830) (Diptera: Tephritidae) expostas a nematoides entomopatogênicos. Curitiba: Universidade Federal do Paraná, 1996. Dissertação de mestrado.

R Core Team. R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. Vienna, Austria: R Foundation for Statistical Computing, 2012. Available from:

SALLES, L.A.B. Metodologia de criação de Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied., 1830) (Diptera: Tephritidae) em dieta artificial em laboratório. Anais da Sociedade Entomológica do Brasil. 1992, 21, 479-486.

SAS Institute Inc. SAS version 9.2 [computer software]. Cary, N.C: SAS Institute Inc. 2008.

SOLIMAN, N.A., et al. Entomopathogenic nematodes and fungi as biocontrol agents for the peach fruit fly, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) and the mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) Soil borne-stages. Egyptian Journal of Biological Pest control. 2014, 24(2), 497‑502.

STRAND, M.R. The insect cellular immune response. Insect Science. 2008, 15, 1-14. http://10.1111/j.1744-7917.2008.00183.x

SUBRAMANIAN, S. and MUTHULAKSHMI, M. Entomopathogenic nematodes. IN: Omkar. (Ed). Ecofriendly pest management for food security. Amsterdam: Elsevier. 2016, pp. 367-410.

TAVARES, S.M. Contribuição para o Controlo Biológico de Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae). Ilha de São Miguel, Açores: Universidade dos Açores, Ponta Delgada, 2011. Dissertação de mestrado.

TOLEDO, J., ROJAS, R. and IBARRA, J.E. Efficiency of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Nematoda: Heterorhabditidae) on Anastrepha serpentina (Diptera: Tephritidae) larvae under laboratory conditions. Florida Entomologist. 2006, 89, 524-526.[524:EOHBNH];2.

TOLEDO, J., et al. Effect of soil moisture on the persistence and efficacy of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae) against Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) larvae. Florida Entomologist. 2014, 97, 528-533.

VALLET-GELY, I., LEMAITRE B. and BOCCARD, F. Bacterial strategies to overcome insect defenses. Nature Reviews Microbiology. 2008, 6, 302-313. http://10.1038/nrmicro1870

WHITE, G.F.A method for obtaining infective nematode larvae from cultures. Science. 1927, 66 (1709) pp.302-303. http://10.1126/science.66.1709.302-a.

ZART, M., FERNANDES, O.A. and BOTTON, M. Biology and fertility life of the South American fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus on a grape. Bulletin of Insectology. 2010, 64, 237-242.

ZUCCHI, R.A. Fruit flies in Brazil. Anastrepha species their host plants and parasitoids. 2017. Available from: Accessed 01.12.19).




How to Cite

CHANEIKO, S.M.., LIMA DE BRIDA, A., BERNARDI, D., GARRIGÓS LEITE, L. and GARCIA, F.R.M.., 2021. Biological activity of entomopathogenic nematodes on Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae). Bioscience Journal [online], vol. 37, pp. e37047. [Accessed8 August 2022]. DOI 10.14393/BJ-v37n0a2021-53895. Available from:



Agricultural Sciences