Space-temporal evaluation of changes in temperature and soil use and cover in the metropolitan region of baixada santista


  • Laurizio Emanuel Ribeiro Alves Universidade Federal de Alagoas
  • Washington Luiz Félix Correia Filho Universidade Federal de Alagoas
  • Heliofábio Barros Gomes Universidade Federal de Alagoas
  • José Francisco de Oliveira-Junior Universidade Federal de Alagoas
  • Fabio de Oliveira Sanches Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora
  • Paulo Eduardo Teodoro Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul



vegetation index, time series, urban heat island


The Metropolitan Region of Baixada Santista (MRBS) harbors one of the main port areas of Brazil: the Port of Santos. Due to the accelerated urban development in this region, the monitoring of biophysical parameters is fundamental. Therefore, this paper aims to i) estimate the soil surface temperature (Ts) and identify the Urban Heat Islands (UHI) formation; and ii) compare the Ts and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) for MRBS from 1986 to 2016 using Landsat 5 and 8 images. Remote sensing tools are essential to meet the objectives of this work for providing both the spatial and temporal evaluation of a region. The spatial analysis was based on the NDVI to evaluate the vegetation density and size from five previously established classes (i.e., water bodies, urban grid, exposed soil and road corridors, shrub, and dense vegetation). The NDVI mapping showed a significant reduction in the cover area referred to the dense vegetation class (91.7%), while the urban grid category increased by 29.4%, resulting from the urban expansion and green cover reduction over the region during this period. Surface temperature thematic maps showed high-temperature values related to increased urbanization and decreased rainfall. Moreover, an 8°C rise in surface temperature over the last 30 years was registered due to the regional development, which has replaced natural soils by anthropic materials and reduced dense vegetation. This phenomenon has resulted in the formation and intensification of UHI, especially after the 2000s.


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How to Cite

ALVES, L.E.R., CORREIA FILHO, W.L.F., GOMES, H.B., OLIVEIRA-JUNIOR, J.F. de, SANCHES, F. de O. and TEODORO, P.E., 2019. Space-temporal evaluation of changes in temperature and soil use and cover in the metropolitan region of baixada santista. Bioscience Journal [online], vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 1438–1449. [Accessed27 November 2022]. DOI 10.14393/BJ-v35n5a2019-42272. Available from:



Agricultural Sciences