Periodontal disease as a risk factor for aspiration pneumonia: a systematic review
Keywords:Intensive Care Units, Aspiration Pneumonia, Biofilm.
The objective of this study was to systematically review the available literature, evaluating if periodontal disease is a risk factor for the development of aspiration pneumonia. The data sources were publications available between 01/01/1980 and 01/15/2011, on the following databases: MEDLINE, LILACS, Evidence Portal, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), and Google Academics. Inclusion criteria included randomized clinical trials, case-control and cohort studies, as well as cross sectional studies, in Portuguese and English. Teams of reviewers, independently and in duplicate, screened titles and abstracts of full text articles to determine eligibility. The selected articles were read in full and the variables evaluated independently and described in predetermined forms according to clinical outcomes. As a result, five studies out of 653 publications were included: three case-control studies and two cohort studies. Although these studies indicate a positive association between the presence of periodontal disease and the occurrence of aspiration pneumonia, the results must be interpreted with caution. They should not be taken as definitive conclusions due to variations in methodology and limitations, such as sample size, inadequate control of potential confounding variables, lack of calibration of periodontal measurements and inconsistent criteria for the establishment of aspiration pneumonia. There is little evidence to affirm that periodontal disease is a risk condition factor for aspiration pneumonia. Future studies are necessary to elucidate this association, as well as to establish the potential benefit of periodontal treatment with the goal of reducing the risk of developing aspiration pneumonia.
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Copyright (c) 2016 Adriana Cagnani, Andréia Moreira de Souza Barros, Luciana Luz Araújo de Sousa, Luciane Zanin, Cristiane de Cassia Bergamaschi, Daiane Cristina Peruzzo, Flávia Martão Flório
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