Sociedade & Natureza <p>SSOCIEDADE &amp; NATUREZA Journal is published by the Instituto de Geografia of the Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, being a vehicle for recording and scientific dissemination, its objectives are: publish unpublished critical review works on a topic pertinent to Geography and related areas or the result of research of an empirical nature, experimental or conceptual; encourage the exchange of experience in their specialty with other institutions, national or foreign, that maintain similar publications; defend and respect the principles of pluralism of philosophical, political and scientific ideas.</p> <p>There are no costs for authors regarding the submission and publication of articles (article processing charges (APCs) / article submission charges).</p> en-US <p align="justify"><strong>Authors hold the Copyright for articles published in this journal, and the journal holds the right for first publication. Because they appear in a public access journal, articles are licensed under Creative Commons Attribution (BY), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.</strong></p> (Prof. Dr. Silvio Carlos Rodrigues) (Ana Flávia Brandão Rocha) Tue, 29 Nov 2022 00:00:00 -0300 OJS 60 Large wildfires in Northwest Portugal: Exploring spatial patterns between 2001 and 2020, based on Landsat data <p>In recent decades, in several parts of the world and under extreme weather conditions, we have witnessed the occurrence of numerous large-scale wildfires. This reality has also occurred in Portugal, burning thousands of hectares of forest, destroying infrastructures, and causing the regrettable loss of human lives. In view of this worsening panorama, we proceeded to the cartography of lLarge Forest Fires (LFF) in northwestern Portugal (larger than 100 hectares), in the period from 2001 to 2020, from the analysis of Landsat images and using Machine Learning tools and the Random Forest algorithm, in Google Earth Engine work environment. Based on the results obtained, an attempt is made to understand the LFF context in northwestern Portugal, as well as to analyse its spatial distribution and temporal evolution in the period under analysis. The conclusion is that about 158.741 ha burnt at least once and 40.9% of this area was affected by LFF a second time. The year of 2005 recorded the highest value of burnt area (73,025.1 ha). And the maximum recurrence observed, in the study area, was 7 occurrences, with a maximum recurrence of 6 times. The brush is the type of vegetation, in NUTS Ave, Alto Minho and Tâmega and Sousa, which presents more burnt area in LFF, while in Cávado, it is the forests that present the most extensive area covered by LFF. Thus, in 15 years for the study area, the most significant proportion of burnt vegetation corresponds to brush, being only in 5 years, forests were the class of the larger burnt area. In the current context of global changes and with large forest fires increasing in frequency, extent and intensity, its study and its temporal and spatial understanding are crucial, both at the regional and national scales.</p> Sarah Moura Batista dos Santos, António Bento-Gonçalves, António Vieira, Georgia Teixeira Copyright (c) 2022 Sarah Moura Batista dos Santos, António Bento-Gonçalves, António Vieira, Georgia Teixeira Tue, 29 Aug 2023 00:00:00 -0300 Household Water Insecurity and Social Vulnerability in the Municipal Context of the Semi-Arid Region of Ceará <p>Household water insecurity refers to difficulties accessing water of sufficient quality and quantity to maintain human well-being. Although this fundamental right is a premise for survival, it is not always guaranteed. This article aims to verify whether there is a correlation between household water insecurity and social vulnerability in the semi-arid region of Ceará. For this purpose, the "Household Water Insecurity Experiences – HWISE" protocol was applied to households to investigate the various problems related to water and household water supply problems. Statistical exploratory data analysis techniques were used through factor analysis, clusters, and spatial correlation to verify the spatial relationship between water insecurity and social vulnerability. The main results show that although there is a situation of household water insecurity, its connection with social vulnerability is more pronounced in urban areas. In rural areas, where vulnerability is higher, the presence of multiple water supply sources such as cisterns and water tankers conveys a higher sense of water security to the population, both in terms of access and availability of water for household consumption. Based on the achieved results, it is evident that household water insecurity requires the consideration of a wide range of factors, and its assessment cannot be accomplished solely through the use of a synthetic indicator of social vulnerability.</p> Paula Alves Tomaz, Jader de Oliveira Santos, Wendy Jepson Copyright (c) 2022 Paula Alves Tomaz, Jader de Oliveira Santos, Wendy Jepson Fri, 25 Aug 2023 00:00:00 -0300 The Influence of Land Use and Land Cover on Surface Temperature in a Water Catchment Sub-Basin <p>Faced with the recent crises of water capture and distribution, managing water resources is a practice that has been gaining prominence in discussions and debates about environmental issues. Thus, this article aims to analyze, in a spatio-temporal way, the Changes in Land Use and Occupation (LULC) and Surface Temperature (LST) in the water catchment sub-basin of Ribeirão Santa Isabel, located in the municipality of Paracatu, Minas Gerais (MG), between the years 1990 and 2020. The choice of the area is justified by the conflicts of use that encompass the sub-basin and by the fact that this is the only source of capture in the municipality, which has already carried out the alteration of the water resource responsible for the capture of water due to the intensity of agricultural practices in the region in the previous area. Through geoprocessing and Remote Sensing (RS) techniques, images from the Landsat-5 and Landsat-8 satellites were used to perform the LST calculations. Regarding usage and occupancy data, the images provided by the Mapbiomas platform were used. It was verified, through the increase in the percentage of the water class and vegetation and the decrease in the agricultural class, that the practices implemented in the study area, in order to conserve the remnants of the biome and maintain a good water availability to the municipality, are having an effect. It was also possible to conclude that LST is affected by LULC, and that the greatest variations occur in non-vegetated areas.</p> Arthur Pereira dos Santos, Henzo Henrique Simionatto, Letícia Tondato Arantes, Vanessa Cezar Simonetti, Renan Angrizani de Oliveira, Jomil Costa Abreu Sales, Darllan Collins da Cunha e Silva Copyright (c) 2022 Arthur Pereira dos Santos, Henzo Henrique Simionatto, Letícia Tondato Arantes, Vanessa Cezar Simonetti, Renan Angrizani de Oliveira, Jomil Costa Abreu Sales, Darllan Collins da Cunha e Silva Wed, 02 Aug 2023 00:00:00 -0300 Relief Dissection Potential and its Relationship with Geodiversity in a Karstic Region of Brazil <p>The quantification of abiotic features is a process in Geodiversity focused studies to indicate priority areas for conservation. Although some quantification methods are in use, doubts remain as to their applicability, particularly the relationship between coefficients of geodiversity and rugosity. In this perspective, this study proposes to analyze this relationship through the geostatistical models of Local Moran’s I and Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR), applied in sub-basins of one of the most important karstic regions in Brazil. To simulate the rugosity coefficient, the Global Relief Dissection Index was used, which consists of a combination of morphometric indices that enable the estimation of a given region’s power of dissection. The application of Local Moran’s I showed geodiversity and relief dissection potential behavior patterns, demonstrating that the variables have spatial dependence and are correlated at certain points. The application of GWR was successful, although the model was not able to explain the regional relationship between the coefficients of geodiversity and relief dissection. Nevertheless, it enabled local analysis of different behaviors through the spatialization of local R2 and residuals. It can be inferred that there are other variables that interfere in the local geodiversity, especially, for being a geosystem with characteristics specific.</p> Fabiano Vieira de Souza, Úrsula de Azevedo Ruchkysa, Bráulio Magalhães Fonseca, Carlos Lobo Copyright (c) 2022 Fabiano Vieira de Souza, Úrsula de Azevedo Ruchkysa, Bráulio Magalhães Fonseca, Carlos Lobo Wed, 09 Aug 2023 00:00:00 -0300 Advancing perspectives in geomorphology – An apotheosis to sustainable natural spaces and eudaemonic citizenry in the 21st century <p>Geomorphology deals with analysis of geo features that occur in a spatial array and develop over a temporal frame. In modern times investigations in geomorphology have progressed with the application of concrete theories of pure geomorphology and techniques of applied geomorphology for modelling future interpolations and projections affecting the Earth’s natural systems. The scale and temporal frame of landform alteration by climate-induced processes (flowing water, glaciers, wind and marine processes) are important indicators of climate change. The integration of applied studies in natural processes and their probable impact on social milieu now requires greater accuracy. The subfields of geomorphology all have now developed multidisciplinary nature and effectively are being integrated in investigations with trans-disciplinary scope. The rapid progress in digital mapping capacities helps to monitor and assess geomorphic processes and estimate their impact on citizenry with precision. Digitization in cartography facilitates and mitigates disaster management in an integrated manner. Adequate planning and budgetary allocations for disaster management by planners and policy makers are simplified. This paper discusses the recent development of latest sub-disciplines in geomorphology, discussing how broad its scope has developed to cater to societal welfare that aims at millennium sustainable development and contented citizenry.</p> Sucheta Mukherjee Copyright (c) 2022 Sucheta Mukherjee Thu, 20 Jul 2023 00:00:00 -0300 Spatial and Epidemiological Aspects of Monkeypox (Mpx) in Rio Grande do Sul <p>This study analyzes the prevalence and spatial aspects of Monkeypox (MPX) in Rio Grande do Sul, considering the public health emergency declared by the World Health Organization in July 2022 and its relation to the high incidence of the disease in gay men and other men who have sex with men (MSM). Data were provided by the Rio Grande do Sul State Health Department via the Access to Information Law and revealed an incidence rate 53 times higher in MSM populations compared to heterosexual people and 48 times higher compared to bisexual people. In addition, MPX disproportionately affects Black and Brown people, with an incidence rate three times higher than the White population. Spatial analysis of the disease demonstrated its concentration in metropolitan areas. It is suggested that disseminating evidence-based information is essential to avoid stigmatization of these groups and that ring vaccination is crucial to prevent the endemic spread of the disease. It is concluded that Black and Brown gay men and MSM are at the highest risk for MPX, and preventive actions should be implemented to protect these vulnerable groups, avoid disease spread and ensure health equity.</p> Maurício Polidoro, Daniel Canavese de Oliveira, Paulo Ricardo Rocha Nogueira Copyright (c) 2022 Maurício Polidoro, Daniel Canavese de Oliveira, Paulo Ricardo Rocha Nogueira Fri, 14 Jul 2023 00:00:00 -0300 Artisanal fishery with surface gillnets and megafauna strandings <p>Bycatch is an issue of worldwide relevance involving conflicts between conservation and fishery interests. In Brazil, this conflict has been highlighted in relation to the regulation of small-scale fishery with surface gillnets. To promote management and transformation of this conflict, we analyzed the relationship between catch unloadings from small-scale fishing with surface gillnets and strandings of marine megafauna. We used fishery monitoring data and beach monitoring data in São Paulo between 2015 and 2021, relating to <em>Chelonia mydas, Caretta caretta, Lepidochelys olivacea, Pontoporia blainvillei</em> and <em>Sotalia guianensis</em>. The analyses included (i) overview of catches unloadings from small-scale fishing with surface gillnets and strandings that resulted in the death of each of these species over the course of the year; (ii) correlation tests between those variables for the northern, central, and southern regions; and (iii) performing regression analyses for municipalities within these regions, exhibiting statistically significant positive correlations. The fisheries harvest period was found not to overlap with the stranding distribution. In correlation tests, only strandings of <em>C. mydas</em> in the northern and southern regions, <em>S. guianensis</em> in the southern region and <em>P. blainvillei</em> in the central region showed relationships with fishing landings. The regression analysis was significant for <em>C. mydas</em> and <em>S. guianensis</em>. At the municipal level, the results were statistically significant for <em>C. mydas</em> in São Sebastião, Ubatuba, Ilha Comprida and Cananéia and for <em>S. guianensis</em> in Cananéia. However, the regression explained a small part of the mortality and other impact factors were pointed out. Non-prohibitive management measures, participatory studies, and direct methods for evaluating the interaction between fisheries and megafauna associated with environmental factors should be implemented, along with analyses on other impacts on megafauna.</p> Mayra Jankowsky, Ivan Machado Martins, Deborah Santos Prado, Jocemar Tomasino Mendonça Copyright (c) 2022 Mayra Jankowsky, Ivan Machado Martins, Deborah Santos Prado, Jocemar Tomasino Mendonça Tue, 11 Jul 2023 00:00:00 -0300 Fire in Savannas and its Impact on Avifauna: Considerations for a Better Environmental Conservation <p>Savannas are a pyrophytic biome, a biodiversity hotspot, and have global importance, occupying 20% of the Earth's surface. It is a biome that requires burning to maintain its biodiversity and pyrodiversity. It has suffered from altered fire regimes due to the direct and indirect action of factors such as deforestation, agriculture, cattle ranching, and climate change, resulting in habitat loss, degradation, and fragmentation. This fact can impact the avifauna, changing population dynamics and distribution in the landscape. Thus, through a literature search, this study evaluated the influences of fire on avifauna populations in savannas. It was found that fire impacts avifauna directly or indirectly and acts positively or negatively, according to the niche of the species evaluated and its intrinsic characteristics. The observed effect will depend on the fire detection ability, locomotion capacity, species, habit, functional guild, demographic parameters, resource availability, post-disturbance successional evolution, dispersal ability, and the geographic scale of the area affected by the fire. The main impacts observed for this clade are indirect effects, and its most negatively impacted populations are the ratites and those with poor locomotion ability. Despite the many gaps in knowledge about the impact of fire on the population parameters of avifauna, studies that focus on community dynamics indicate that, in general, there are few changes in richness and abundance indices. Thus, a greater understanding of the consequences of fire on birds is necessary to support better the actions of the Integrated Fire Management Program and its expansion throughout the Brazilian territory in search of quality, dynamic, and integrated environmental management.</p> Bárbara Beatriz da Silva Nunes Copyright (c) 2022 Bárbara Beatriz da Silva Nunes Mon, 10 Jul 2023 00:00:00 -0300 Perception of riverside folk about environmental degradation in the Igaraçu river, Piauí, Brazil <p>Co-development of knowledge is a useful tool for addressing the management of complex social-ecological systems like the ribeirinhos (riverine communities) of Brazil. Incorporating local knowledge and environmental perception of ribeirinhos into assessments of river degradation can lead to management outcomes that better support human and ecosystem health. In the state of Piauí, Brazil, riverine people depend on the Igaraçu River for various subsistence needs. However, river pollution has increased. The objective of this study was to comprehend the perceptions of ribeirinhos regarding the environmental degradation of the Igaraçu River in Piauí and how they believed it affected their life and ecosystem. We conducted interviews with 79 informants to gather insights on environmental degradation, its causes, and consequences. The results were analyzed using a Loyalty Level (LL) metric. The majority of respondents (67.86%, n=38) perceived that degradation was indeed taking place. They attributed the primary causes of degradation to discarded garbage (LL= 74.41) and the discharge of polluted water (LL= 11.60). Informants reported that local fauna and flora (LL= 35.70) were being impacted by water contamination. However, despite their reliance on the river for sustenance, including food, water, and the harvesting of forest products, they did not perceive any significant harm to their livelihoods. This study demonstrates that individuals who have a direct dependency on local natural resources can offer firsthand data regarding environmental changes. However, additional efforts are required to assist local communities (those who directly utilize the local environment) in developing a deeper understanding of how environmental degradation impacts both the present and future of their communities, as well as their connection to the local ecosystem.</p> Irlaine Rodrigues Vieira, Maria Rikelly Frota Aguiar, Luiz Henrique Machado Amarante, Manoel Bruno Alves Sales, Arika Virapongse, Jefferson Soares de Oliveira Copyright (c) 2022 Irlaine Rodrigues Vieira, Maria Rikelly Frota Aguiar, Luiz Henrique Machado Amarante, Manoel Bruno Alves Sales, Arika Virapongse, Jefferson Soares de Oliveira Mon, 19 Jun 2023 00:00:00 -0300 Mapping of aridity and its connections with climate classes and climate desertification in future scenarios – Brazilian semi-arid region <p>Brazil has the most populous and biodiverse semi-arid region in the world (Brazilian Semi-arid - SAB). However, in recent decades, clusters of desertification have emerged, a problem that could intensify from climate change. The objective of this study was to elaborate on the spatial distribution of areas susceptible to climatic desertification in the SAB, considering future climate change scenarios. Understanding this dynamic is essential for SAB's agri-environmental management. Aridity indices and proposition of climate classes for current condition (1970-2000) and future scenarios (2061-2080) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) were prepared, considering scenarios from Shared Socioeconomic Pathways: Optimistic (SSP 126) and pessimists (SSP 585). The results indicate that by the end of the century, the climate in the SAB should become significantly drier (Kruskal-Wallis = p-value &lt; 0.05), with an intensification of the aridity index in SSP 585. In the scenarios, the expansion of more arid areas over humid climates could reach 56,500 km² (10%) in SSP 126 and 140,400 km² (24%) in SSP 585. Consequently, areas with high (622,400 km² to 706,300 km²) and very high (622,400 km² to 706,300 km²) are expected to expand. 4,400 to 21,700 km²) susceptibility to climate desertification in the SAB, respectively in scenarios SSPs 126 and 585. Confirming these projections would imply socioeconomic and ecological risks in the SAB.</p> Lucas Augusto Pereira da Silva, Claudionor Ribeiro da Silva, Cristiano Marcelo Pereira de Souza, Édson Luís Bolfe, João Paulo Sena Souza, Marcos Esdras Leite Copyright (c) 2022 Lucas Augusto Pereira da Silva, Claudionor Ribeiro da Silva, Cristiano Marcelo Pereira de Souza, Édson Luís Bolfe, João Paulo Sena Souza, Marcos Esdras Leite Mon, 19 Jun 2023 00:00:00 -0300 Determination of the critical threshold for the occurrence of fires in the Parque Nacional de Brasília (Brazil) through temporal analysis using spectral índices <p class="Artigo-Texto">The Brazilian Savannah is one of the largest biomes in Brazil. Unfortunately, human pressure is aggravating the degradation processes of the biome and, together with the drought processes, fire events are a major concern. Monitoring tools must be designed, especially those involving the concepts of remote sensing, in anticipation of the fire phenomenon, mitigating the devastating effects. Therefore, the present research aims to determine the critical threshold for the occurrence of fires through the diagnosis of the conditions of greenness, humidity and senescence of the vegetation using the temporal analysis of Sentinel-2 images in the Parque Nacional de Brasília. Therefore, it is necessary to quantitatively determine each condition through the analysis of past events, determining the criticality threshold that conditions the region to present conditions that favor the onset of a fire, as well as the construction of an algorithm, in the Google Earth Engine. The study area is the Parque Nacional de Brasília, with the image data collection Harmonized Sentinel-2 MSI: MultiSpectral Instrument, Level-1C inside the Google Earth Engine. The algorithm aims to build a masking system to remove materials from the scenes, as well as the calculation of the NDVI, NDII, PSRI and dNBR indices, extracting the data through the mask of burned pixels. It was possible to identify six periods of fire occurrence, the data extraction allowed the statistical determination of the threshold, which was 0,580 for the NDVI, 0,015 for the NDII and 0,150 for the PSRI.</p> Lucas Inácio da Silva, Gustavo Macedo de Mello Baptista Copyright (c) 2022 Lucas Inácio Silva, Gustavo Macedo Mello Baptista Wed, 14 Jun 2023 00:00:00 -0300 Use of territory and financial valuation: the Cosan Group and the Brazilian sugar-energy sector <p>The structural changes that have occurred in contemporary capitalism, brought new conditions for the use of territory in Brazil. Consequently, it can be observed the insertion of new agents from the financial sphere, notably investment funds, corporate investors, and high net-worth individuals, who started to participate, directly and indirectly, in the productive processes in various sectors that take place in the Brazilian territory. This process was evaluated in this paper, through the empirical situation of Cosan Group, the main controller of the Brazilian sugar-energy sector (production of sugarcane and sugarcane derivatives). Our analysis was based on secondary data on the agricultural and agro-industrial production of this group, as well as the strategies and characteristics related to the financialization of the company (such as initial public offering, investor behaviour, among others) and financial issues, using information obtained from public and private databases. The analysis of the use of territory by the Cosan Group makes it possible to identify the transformations associated with the insertion of this agent into the current dynamics of financialization of the economy and the inherent territorial implication of this process. The strategies of the use of territory adopted by the Cosan Group, in the current context of financial accumulation, were mainly guided by the need for financial valuation, which occurred fundamentally through the mobilization of public funds and the territorial expansion of productive activities.</p> Laís Ribeiro Silva, Mirlei Fachini Vicente Pereira Copyright (c) 2022 Laís Ribeiro Silva, Mirlei Fachini Vicente Pereira Mon, 12 Jun 2023 00:00:00 -0300 Socio-Environmental Vulnerability to Drought in the Seridó Potiguar, Brazil: Building Indicators <p>Imprecise in space-time and with damaging effects, drought as a historical-natural phenomenon of high complexity has been afflicting the population of the Seridó Potiguar Region, located in the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Northeast Brazil. For centuries, the region, of state relevance, is part of the Brazilian semiarid region. This reality produces socio-spatial, socio-economic, and political-institutional conflicts. Considering this, and the fact that drought in the 21st century continues to reach disastrous proportions and cause harm to human systems, this research aimed to offer a partial overview of the socio-environmental vulnerability of the Seridó region to drought, focusing on seven key municipalities: Bodó, Caicó, Currais Novos, Ipueira, Jardim de Piranhas, Jucurutu, and Parelhas. The Drought Vulnerability Index (DVI) was applied to these municipalities, composed of the sub-indices of Exposure, Susceptibility, and Adaptive Capacity, based on socio-economic and physical-environmental variables, which were calculated, classified, and cartographically represented using the RGB color composition. After analyzing the results, it was found that the municipalities ranged from low to moderate vulnerability, which can be justified by the compensation between the variables themselves and the good indicators regarding social assistance, mixed economy, hydraulic infrastructure, and means of coping with the semiarid region.</p> Anderson Geová Maia de Brito, Lutiane Queiroz de Almeida Copyright (c) 2022 Anderson Geová Maia de Brito, Lutiane Queiroz de Almeida Tue, 30 May 2023 00:00:00 -0300 Correction of Precipitation Data in Weather Files for the Subtropical Climate in Southern Brazil <p>The thermal performance of buildings can be evaluated prior to its construction by modeling it using a specialized software. Climate boundary conditions must be represented by a weather file that is composed of a weather dataset organized hourly according to a defined year structure such as Test Reference Year (TRY) or Typical Meteorological Year (TMY). Before this study, there were a few weather files available for cities in southern Brazil, notably, Santa Maria, RS, classified as a humid subtropical climate. The most recent available weather file was built in 2014 and presents inconsistencies with respect to precipitation data. Therefore, the objetive of this study was to process and analyze the climate data of Santa Maria over an eighteen-year period (2002-2020), to generate a more reliable weather file. The applied method considered the following procedures: data collection and processing; TRY (TRY17) and TMY2 (TMY0220) definition; solar radiation data calculation; EPW files generation; and comparison between the new EPW files and the previous existing files. As a result, in a short period of time (2014-2020), significant differences among the weather files were observed. The importance of updating weather files in time intervals shorter than 30 years was emphasized. In relation to the comparative analysis, both weather files (TRY17 and TMY0220) presented dry bulb temperatures in consonance with the other files previously available. Although, the correction of precipitation data could originate building simulations closer to the reality.</p> Liliane Bonadiman Buligon, Elaíse Gabriel, Selton Fernandes Sousa Lima, Giane Campos Grigoletti, Daniel Gustavo Allasia Piccilli Copyright (c) 2022 Liliane Bonadiman Buligon, Elaíse Gabriel, Selton Fernandes Sousa Lima, Giane Grigoletti, Daniel Gustavo Allasia Piccilli Thu, 04 May 2023 00:00:00 -0300 Analysis of Anthropic Pressure on Urban Mangroves: Subsidies for Environmental Protection and Territorial Planning <p>The mangrove is a transitional ecosystem between terrestrial and marine environments and represents an important ecological indicator for the ecosystem services provided. However, despite its ecological relevance, it still suffers anthropic pressures and has been losing in extent and environmental quality. In Brazil, and specifically in the municipality of Paranaguá, a mix of anthropogenic use has caused significant pressures on mangroves. In this sense, the aim of this study is to assess the degree of anthropization of the urban mangroves in the city of Paranaguá (PR), through the use of very high spatial resolution images, obtained from Remotely Piloted Aircraft in order to support municipal policies for land-use planning. From the methodological point of view, from field campaigns, maps were produced with the aid of QGIS 3.10 software, from the photointerpretation of orthomosaics. The legend of the anthropization classes covered: deposition of household waste (i), rubble (ii), discharge of untreated domestic effluents (iii) and manholes (iv). The results indicated a total of 475 points of anthropic pressure on the 22 mangrove patches analysed. The most prominent class was household waste, followed respectively by untreated domestic effluent discharge, debris (construction material) and, finally, shackle. In conclusion, the use of high-resolution orthomosaics proved to be an important and effective tool in the analysis of anthropization of urban mangroves, thus highlighting the areas with greater pressure and contributing to a continuous monitoring. The products of this research can help in the elaboration of land-use planning instruments for the municipality, highlighting the need for the construction of a holistic view in favor of mangrove conservation.</p> Sidney Vincent de Paul Vikou, Otacílio Lopes de Souza da Paz, Daiane Maria Pilatti, Eduardo Vedor de Paula Copyright (c) 2022 Sidney Vincent de Paul Vikou, Otacílio Lopes de Souza da Paz, Daiane Maria Pilatti, Eduardo Vedor de Paula Tue, 25 Apr 2023 00:00:00 -0300 Assessment of Ecosystem Services Provided by a Green Urban Infrastructure in Brazilian Atlantic Forest Biome Areas – Dourados, Mato Grosso Do Sul <p>Urban infrastructure is a challenge for municipal managers in Brazil, given the rapid urbanization that has occurred in the country and the population growth in these locations. The inclusion of green characteristics in the urban space has contributed to the human needs of residents in this space, areas that allow the filtering of pollutants in the air and water, greater absorption of rainwater, noise reduction, scenic beauty, among other characteristics that are related to ecosystem services. In this context, the objective of the study is to identify the opportunity cost for the existence of urban green areas. This was done using the methodological resources available in environmental economics, which employs the opportunity cost based on the assessment of the net benefit of conservation. Primary and secondary data were used, the sources being literature and satellite images. Considering the analysis period from 2018 to 2020. The results indicate that the opportunity cost is greater than the amounts that can be collected through the commercialization of ecosystem services, implying that the landowners of the Urban Ecological Corridor projected in the municipality of Dourados - Mato Grosso do Sul, should be financially supported to maintain these services in green areas, given their importance to people's quality of life.</p> Maycon Jorge Farinha, André Geraldo Berezuk, Luciana Bernardo, Adelsom Soares Filho Copyright (c) 2022 Maycon Jorge Farinha, André Geraldo Berezuk, Luciana Bernardo, Adelsom Soares Filho Mon, 17 Apr 2023 00:00:00 -0300 Geo-History Notes for the Study of Production of the Beach Space in Northeastern, Brazil <p>The present work aims to present some geohistorical notes about the production of beach space in Northeast Brazil, based on bibliographic research. The Brazilian beach space results from different social practices, some of which emerged through the absorption of behaviors and lifestyles arising from modern westerns. The social appropriation of beaches on the coast of the Northeast took place in the mid-19th century, when local elites turned to the sea, in the context of the incorporation of the so-called "modern maritime practices" (therapeutic baths, vacations, etc.), colonizing an environment previously intended only for “traditional maritime practices” (fishing, defense, and port activity). The transformation and consumption of these spaces were based on the establishment of second homes and infrastructure aimed at the development of tourist activity. In the first part of this article, we characterize the environment and socially on the Northeastern coast, in order to demonstrate the predominance of the beach environment and its social and economic value. Then we seek to discuss the production of beach space in the Northeast, pointing out the geohistorical factors linked to its valorization. Finally, we briefly present the process of production of beach space in a large northeastern city, Recife, highlighting the historical process of appropriation and valorization of its beaches.</p> Otávio Augusto Alves dos Santos Copyright (c) 2022 Otávio Augusto Alves Santos Mon, 10 Apr 2023 00:00:00 -0300 Drainage Network Planning and Analysis Based on Image Segmentation - an Application in the Bandeirinha Stream - Formosa, State of Goiás, Brazil <p class="ABNTCitao">The present research aimed to demonstrate the feasibility of using image segmentation for better drainage extraction, automated drainage network hierarchization and main channel definition based on Horton (<a href="#HORTON1945">1945</a>). The test area for the applications was the Bandeirinha Stream Hydrographic Basin (BSHB), which is located in the municipality of Formosa, in the state of Goiás, Brazil. The study used the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), with a spatial resolution of 1" x 1" (one arc second). The SRTM segmentation was performed using the Python language ODR_Obia algorithm, inserted with a QGIS plugin. Through the QGIS platform, the ODR_Hidro plugin was used to perform the delimitation of the BSHB, the extraction of the drainages and the definition of the main channel. The results were validated in the field and evaluated from the manual definition of the main channel. That was done using both the data produced by the application and the drainage data contained in the vector base of the topographic maps of the Army of Geographic Service (AGS), at the scale of 1:100,000 and 1:25,000. From the results obtained, it can be inferred that the ODR_Hidro model used for the delimitation of the BSHB, the automated hierarchization of the drainages and the definition of the main channel from the segmented SRTM image is very efficient. The field validation demonstrated its effectiveness by proving the existence of first-order drainages which are not mapped on the DSG chart at a scale of 1:100.000. This leads to the conclusion that the use of the proposed tools and the inclusion of image segmentation, aiming for the extraction of drainage network and geomorphometric characterization of watersheds, can efficiently contribute to the provision of morphometric data.</p> Olavo Amancio Oliveira, Edilson Souza Bias, Valdir Adilson Steinke Copyright (c) 2022 Olavo Amancio Oliveira, Edilson Souza Bias, Valdir Adilson Steinke Mon, 03 Apr 2023 00:00:00 -0300 Lineament Patterns and Structural, Tectonic, and Neotectonic Control in the Relief of the Pancas Region (Espírito Santo, Southeast Brazil) <p>The main objective of this research is to investigate the lithostructural, tectonic, and neotectonic control on the relief of the Pancas region (Espírito Santo, Southeastern Brazil). The methodology was organized into computer and field analyses. In a computer, lineament and structural trend maps were generated from the manual extraction technique using editing tools of ArcGIS 10.3.1™ software (<a href="#ESRI2012">ESRI, 2012</a>) over a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) with different artificial illumination (scale 1:110.000) and orientation rosettes were generated. The geological and geomorphological maps were organized/elaborated with ArcGIS from the Geographic Information System (GIS). The cartographic bases were configured in the UTM projection system, and DATUM SIRGAS 2000, zone 24S, and later analyzed and compared with the data of the orientations of the dedicated lineaments, with the orientation of the studied outcrop failures and with the existing literature. The results presented NW-SE/NNW-SSE and NE-SW/NNE-SSW orientations, with the predominance of NNW-SSE and NW-SE orientations identified in the analysis of the lineaments and structural trends, similar to the orientations of the geological faults and neotectonic faults present in the studied area, reflecting the regional structuring of the area, presenting the same orientations as the Colatina Belt. The secondary orientations of the Araçuaí Orogen (NE-SW), the identification of morphotectonic features, the presence of abrupt topographic differences (topographic profiles), and the identification of tectonic regions (base surface map) and tectonic blocks (scanning profile) demonstrate the tectonic control in the relief of the Pancas-ES region, achieving the objective of this research.</p> Marcos Cesar Luna da Silva, Luiza Leonardi Bricalli Copyright (c) 2022 Marcos Cesar Luna da Silva, Luiza Leonardi Bricalli Thu, 30 Mar 2023 00:00:00 -0300 Sustainable Drainage Technologies Under the Sustainability Tripod Perspective <p>The management of drainage and urban rainwater management in Brazil and in the world faces numerous challenges in order to be sustainable. When dealing with sustainability, it is important to relate the aspects: of social, environmental and economic, known as the sustainability tripod. Compensatory urban drainage techniques, through infiltration or detention and increasing the evapotranspiration rate, have the potential to reduce: the amount of rainwater runoff; flow peaks; vulnerability of urban areas to flooding; contamination of water courses. It is important that, even with all these benefits, such technologies are associated with such aspects. In this context, this systematic review article (SR) was developed, which aimed to identify trends in the use of sustainable drainage technologies adopted in Brazil and in the world, relating them to aspects of sustainability. For that, a systematic review (SR) was carried out in which the following were identified: trends in the adoption of technologies for sustainable drainage in the world and in Brazil; and the terms used and related to technologies for sustainable drainage. It was also observed, both in Brazil and in the world, that the approach to the theme begins with the technological aspect involving the implementation, life cycle and maintenance of sustainable technologies and, in sequence, the environmental, economic and social aspects unfold in this order, but which are not done in an integral way. It was possible to characterize an important knowledge gap.</p> Ana Paula Camargo Vicente, Karla Maria Silva Faria, Klebber Teodomiro Martins Formiga Copyright (c) 2022 Ana Paula Camargo de Vicente, Karla Maria Silva Faria, Klebber Teodomiro Martins Formiga Tue, 14 Mar 2023 00:00:00 -0300 Morphometric characterization of doliniform features in the Araguaia Plain <p>The Araguaia Plain has extensive areas of savannah scattered forest fragments similar to circular depressions. These features, in addition to serving as corridors, could be associated with important features such as karsts, closed-water connection structures and ecological-type formations. To identify this relationship and contribute to the understanding of its genesis, this study has as its main objective the morphometric analysis of doliniform functions in the Araguaia Plain. Through the geoenvironmental characterization of the study area; digital facility models – SRTM; interpretation of Sentinel 2-A satellite images from 2019 to 2020; and calculation of morphometric variables: area, perimeters, activity, altitude, length and density, Kernel circularity index. A total of 24,023 doliniform features associated with green/healthy vegetation were identified in a Coverage Area of 114,900 km², Concentrated Majoritariate in the Brazilian municipalities of Lagoa da Confusão -Tocantins; Pium-Tocantins and Cocalinho-Mato Grosso. The features showed circular superiority areas up to 10 km², circular activity indexes at 0.5 and up to 1 and 1.5, indicating a predominance of circular shapes on slopes of 3% in the NE orientation. Based on the results, it can be verified that these features present sinkholes, as they may be under the influence of patterns associated with some processes, denoting in some processes the existence of a covered karst.</p> Oscar Eduardo Paez Manchola, Fernando de Morais Copyright (c) 2022 Oscar Eduardo Paez Manchola, Fernando Morais Mon, 27 Mar 2023 00:00:00 -0300 Soils of lake environments in the Brazilian Pantanal <p>The Pantanal comprehends a set of heterogeneous and biodiverse landscapes of esteemed environmental, economic and social value. The study of soils is effective to stratify and to understanding the operation of these environments. The purpose of this study was to characterize and compare soils of lake landscapes of the Pantanal: baías (freshwater lakes), salinas (alkaline lakes) and their respective levees (sandy ridges originally with forest vegetation). For this purpose, we carried out field work with sampling, in triplicate, of superficial soil layers in 12 representative areas of low and high Nhecolândia; analytical determinations of 26 soil attributes were performed, totaling 936 response variables and statistical analyses were performed in order to synthesize the data and present the results. In both landscapes, the fine sand fraction predominates in the soil granulometry. The textural class of the soils varied from very sandy, medium sandy and medium sandy for the baías; very sandy for the levees, with particle density related to the presence of quartz; and very sandy, medium sandy, medium clayey and clayey for the salinas. In the chemical attributes and organic matter, the baías stand out for higher potential acidity (H+Al), slightly high organic matter contents and availability of metal ions, especially Fe; in the levees, higher average remaining phosphorus (Prem) are more evident; while the saline lake soils are related to more alkaline pH values, high base saturation and high Sodium Saturation Indices (ISNa). Salinas landscapes presented the highest data variability and have soil attributes that refer to the action of different environmental processes.</p> Diogo Costa Nascimento, Guilherme Resende Corrêa, Frederico Santos Gradella, Prímula Viana Campos, Viviane Arantes Koch, Bruno Nery Fernandes Vasconcelos Copyright (c) 2022 Diogo Costa Nascimento, Guilherme Resende Corrêa, Frederico Santos Gradella, Prímula Viana Campos, Viviane Arantes Koch, Bruno Nery Fernandes Vasconcelos Fri, 10 Mar 2023 00:00:00 -0300 Methodological proposal for evaluation of susceptibility to environmental degradation <p>Land use and occupation is a research theme that contributes to the analysis of the territory dynamics, reflected in the relationships between society and nature that modify the landscape. These relationships include environmental, spatial, cultural, and socioeconomic factors that integrate the environment from a systemic point of view and perform functions and activities capable of maintaining or disturbing the natural balance of the environment. Thus, knowing the limits of environmental systems is a way to live rationally with the exploitation of natural resources for the development of the various human activities. Therefore, this study aimed to propose a method to assess the degree of susceptibility to environmental degradation, using geoprocessing techniques, in the Immediate Geographical Region of “Princesa Isabel” (IGRPI), located in the semi-arid region of Paraíba. Geology, pedology, geomorphology, rainfall, vegetation cover, and land use and occupation data were integrated into the Geographic Information System to compute the Biophysical Index of Susceptibility to Environmental Degradation (BISED) in the IGRPI. The analyzed factors were more fragile in rural areas because of natural factors, since in urban areas there are more intense anthropogenic activities, and the BISED ranged from low to high, especially in municipal seats, indicating that the region, even being little developed, has the opportunity to plan the environment for a future with sustainable exploitation.</p> Erickson Melo Albuquerque, Eduardo Rodrigues Viana Lima, Maria Fátima Barroso Sousa Copyright (c) 2022 Erickson Melo Albuquerque, Eduardo Rodrigues Viana Lima, Maria Fátima Barroso Sousa Fri, 10 Mar 2023 00:00:00 -0300 Sugarcane and Coffee in the Extreme Southern Region of Bahia, Brazil: A Spatio-Temporal Analysis and Socioeconomic Factors <p>The extreme southern region of Bahia (ESRB - Extreme Southern Region of Bahia) has agricultural aptitude for several crops and has already been subjected to the expansion of sugarcane and coffee. Thus, this work analyzes the spatial and temporal dynamics of sugarcane and coffee monocultures in the ESRB and their relationship with socioeconomic indices. The methodology consists of collection and analysis of data from the Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE), which is the main provider of geographic information and statistics in Brazil, the Companhia Nacional de Abastecimento (CONAB), which is responsible for providing technical information to support your decision-making regarding the elaboration of policies aimed at agriculture and the Atlas Brasil platform. Data were collected regarding the planted area and the amount of sugarcane and coffee produced in the region between 1988 and 2019. To understand the relationship between expansion and socioeconomic factors, data related to gross domestic product (GDP) and municipal human development index (MHDI) were collected. This study identified the main sugarcane-producing municipalities (Caravelas, Mucuri, Medeiros Neto, Nova Viçosa, Lajedão, Ibirapuã and Santa Cruz Cabrália) and coffee (Prado, Itamaraju, Porto Seguro, Eunapolis, Teixeira de Freitas and Itabela). The expansion of these crops presents economic importance for the region, but presents a little contribution to the improvement of the various factors that make up the MHDI of the municipalities. This study concluded that the expansion of these crops changed the agricultural matrix of the region due to its specialization in the production of these crops to the detriment of others such as cocoa, for example.</p> Regiane Oliveira Almeida, Thyane Viana Cruz , Maria Otávia Crepaldi , Leonardo Thompson Silva , Ana Cristina Sousa, Everton Mateus Santos Cerqueira, Anderson Sena Copyright (c) 2022 Regiane Oliveira Almeida, Thyane Viana Cruz , Maria Otávia Crepaldi , Leonardo Thompson Silva , Ana Cristina Sousa, Everton Mateus Santos Cerqueira, Anderson Sena Fri, 10 Mar 2023 00:00:00 -0300 Does the Political Variable Explain the COVID-19 Event in Brazil? <p>In effectively confronting the Covid-19 pandemic, it is necessary to complement the contributions of Biomedical Sciences to those offered by the Human Sciences. The theoretical foundations derived from the treatment of the interaction of the infectious agent with the host, primates in formatting the guidelines adopted by the World Health Organization, faced strong opposition from government officials in countries such as Brazil, giving rise to critical pronouncements by researchers in the biomedical sciences in space offered by important scientific journals. Despite being fruitful and strategic in nature, we feel encouraged to consider the objective limits of such investiture, a direct reflection of the lack of dialogue with the Human Sciences, in the field of politics and, mainly, of urbanism. Taking as a starting point the unfolding of the phenomenon in Brazil, specifically in the metropolis of Fortaleza-Ceará, we will show how the "denial" posture is inserted in a broader context, encompassing both a representative political framework of a federative government and including postures of insurgency of the Local Governments (of the federative states) in relation to the Central Government as social and economic aspects that characterize a westernized country to establish impactful filtering genre in the implementation of policies of ordering and control of the singular space. In these terms, the drastic expansion of Covid-19 in Brazil denotes a paradoxical picture to represent: a political context of resistance by Local Governments to minimize the controversial actions and attitudes of the Central Government, specifically the creation of the Forum of Governors in the Northeast to guarantee incorporation WHO international guidelines; a trajectory of unequal and perverse modernization that corroborates the indication of a high number of cases and, mainly, deaths in precarious urbanization areas of cities such as Fortaleza, establishing the periphery as the territory of death, registered in areas with a high social vulnerability index of negatively impact the effective implementation of the social isolation policy.</p> Eustógio Wanderley Correia Dantas, Jader Oliveira Santos, Alexandre Queiroz Pereira Copyright (c) 2022 Alexandre Queiroz Pereira, Jader Oliveira Santos, Eustógio Wanderley Correia Dantas Mon, 06 Mar 2023 00:00:00 -0300 The Relationship between Lineament Patterns and Mass Movements in the Municipality of Vitória (Espírito Santo, Southeast Brazil) <p>The main objective of this research is to analyze and relate lineament patterns to the occurrence of mass movements in the municipality of Vitória (Espírito Santo, Brazil). The methodology used consists of cabinet and field analyses. In a cabinet, Lineament Maps were made from the manual extraction technique, using ArcGIS 10.5 tools, on a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) with different artificial lighting (scale 1:110000) and Digital Orthophotos (scale 1:25000) and orientation rosettes generated. In the field, the geological structures were identified and analyzed from the lineaments identified in the cabinet, and their orientations were measured (Brunton compass). These data were integrated and analyzed from the Municipal Civil Defense mass movements records, referring to the period between 2006 and 2020. It was possible to verify the orientation patterns of dominant geological structures in the area (NNW-SSE and NW-SE, followed by NE-SW), including all measured fractures. At the regional scale, more mass movements occurred near NNW-SSE, NW-SE, and NE-SW orientation lineaments. At the local scale, these processes occurred more frequently in the vicinity of NNW-SSE, NNE-SSW, and NE-SW orientation lineaments. Data analysis demonstrates the important relationship between lineaments and occurrences of mass movements with regional geological structures and neotectonic events of the Espírito Santo in altered rocks of the Precambrian basement and Cenozoic deposits. The data revealed an association between the density of geological structures and the occurrence of mass movements since the increase in density is directly proportional to these processes, except for the Very High -density class, which presented little area representation.</p> Thiago Borini Pimentel, Luiza Leonardi Bricalli Copyright (c) 2022 Thiago Borini Pimentel, Luiza Leonardi Bricalli Wed, 01 Mar 2023 00:00:00 -0300 The geoenvironmental susceptibility of the Ribeirão Lajeado watershed – Tocantins <p>The geoenvironmental study through the integration of natural elements with the use and land cover is a methodological proposal for strategic planning. In this sense, the objective of this article is to perform an analysis of geoenvironmental susceptibility from the use of multicriteria in the watershed of Ribeirão Lajeado. For this, the organization of cartographic materials was carried out, such as the drainage network, slope, lithology, soils, land use and cover and access routes, where normalized weights were established from the technique of the Hierarchical Analytical Process (AHP). This crossing generated the geoenvironmental susceptibility map, defined in four units, namely: I) low (flat top area with vegetation cover and no proximity to the access roads); II) medium (places with some human occupations or with wavy smooth relief); III) high (areas with wide occurrence of roads and abundant drainage network, susceptible to anthropic intervention, mainly related to agricultural activities and urban areas) and IV) very high (places with roads and portions of agricultural use with slopes greater than 15%, presence of fire scars and urban areas. Thus, the AHP technique presents itself as an important tool for geoenvironmental, especially in defining weights for the factors analyzed.</p> Lucas Silva Ribeiro, Luís Eduardo Souza Robaina, Sandro Sidnei Vargas Cristo Copyright (c) 2022 Lucas Silva Ribeiro, Luís Eduardo Souza Robaina, Sandro Sidnei Vargas Cristo Thu, 09 Feb 2023 00:00:00 -0300 Anthropic Changes in the River Landscape of São João Del-Rei City – Minas Gerais, Brazil <p>Anthropogenic interventions in the natural landscape became recurrent from the expansion of nuclei and population increase, causing the relationship established between human beings and nature to move away from the naturalist model and assume an interventionist premise. Among the various interferences in the natural environment, this work establishes a spatial cut in the urban river landscape changes, in particular, those caused by processes of rectification, canalization and plugging of urban rivers. The denaturalization and mischaracterization of this system means that the existence of urban rivers have been ignored, acquiring notoriety only when natural processes, intensified by human beings, cause damage or disaster to the population that usually occupies the floodplain areas. Thus, recognizing these changes and rescuing the relationship of belonging to this environment, which initially supported the formation of most urban centers, becomes essential for local landscape and urban planning. Based on this understanding, this study aimed to carry out a survey of the changes in the river landscape of the São João del-Rei city - Minas Gerais. For this purpose, the descriptive investigative method was used, which made possible the elaboration of a case study. The results obtained by the research indicate that the river landscape has been significantly altered, especially by rectifications, canalizations and plugging of urban rivers, which are presented in a historical context and related to the processes and dynamics of urban waters.</p> André Barbosa Ribeiro Ferreira, Andréa Aparecida Zacharias , Francielle Silva Cardozo, Bráulio Magalhães Fonseca Copyright (c) 2022 André Barbosa Ribeiro Ferreira, Andréa Aparecida Zacharias , Francielle Silva Cardozo, Bráulio Magalhães Fonseca Thu, 26 Jan 2023 00:00:00 -0300 Historical Cartography (NE, Brazil): A Study of Coastal Geoforms Cartographed Post-Discovery <p>Geomorphological studies are crucial for understanding the evolution of relief, and when associated with cartography, they enhance the interpretation and knowledge of environmental dynamics. Hence, historical cartography is essential for the documental rescue of landscapes, which, based on the mapped geoforms, enhances post-discovery studies for the state of Ceará, Brazil. Historically, this state was intermittently mapped in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries but gained greater attention from Portugal in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries after its separation from Pernambuco. Despite this, cartographic studies on coastal geoforms are not typical for the Ceará coast over a given period, highlighting the importance of this investigation. Therefore, this article aimed to study the environmental history of the coastal geoforms mapped on the extreme west coast of Ceará in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. This research had a qualitative and exploratory basis, with cartographic documental surveys online and <em>in loco</em>, covering the municipalities of Jijoca de Jericoacoara, Camocim, and Barroquinha. Fifty maps of different origins were collected, three of which were used: a French sketch and two Portuguese maps. In the French material of 1615, geoforms in the Cape de la Tortue indicated the presence of a rocky island separated from the mainland. From the Portuguese map of 1629, a well-cut coastline was noted, identifying Buraco das Tartarugas, where there were two islands of different sizes. In the 1794 map, an island in the cove called Geri qua Coá was noted, differing in landscape from the previous ones, as it did not have tombolos connected to the continent. The cartographies presented particularities for revealing a possible advance in the local sea level. Thus, it is possible to motivate future research in the area of historical cartography as a tool for the analysis of the paleogeographic evolution of the coastal zones of Ceará.</p> Carlos Araújo Farrapeira Neto, Antônio Jeovah Andrade Meireles, Davis Pereira Paula, Francisco Borja Barrera, Rafael Cámara Artigas, César Borja Barrera, Miguel Guia Albuquerque, Josafá Terto Amorim Copyright (c) 2022 Carlos Araújo Farrapeira Neto, Antônio Jeovah Andrade Meireles, Davis Pereira Paula, Francisco Borja Barrera, Rafael Cámara Artigas, César Borja Barrera, Miguel Guia Albuquerque, Josafá Terto Amorim Thu, 19 Jan 2023 00:00:00 -0300 Environmental Vulnerability of the Buriticupu River Water Basin, Maranhão - Brazil: The Relief as a Key Element <p>Studying a watershed in the Amazon region requires understanding that this region has national and global relevance. The fact that the study area is located in the so-called arc of deforestation raises the need to understand its context, its vulnerabilities, and its physical, environmental, and anthropic components. This research assesses the environmental vulnerability of the Buriticupu River Watershed in Maranhão State, Brazil. The aim is to foster improvements that may contribute to environmental planning and, specifically, to water resource management. For this purpose, the authors used the Geographic Information System environment to work with Map Algebra, interrelating primary and secondary data on geology, relief, pedology, and land use and land cover to generate synthesis cartography. The results pointed to areas with predominantly medium vulnerability. However, the analyses highlight alluvial plains, which became the most fragile areas from an environmental point of view. This is mainly because these areas comprise water-saturated soils (gleysols), unconsolidated deposits of sand and silt (alluvial deposits), and extensive humid vegetation, characteristics of igapó and floodplain forests. This research generated a document that applies is applicable to the study area. It also provided, in a systemic and integrated way, a product that will help in planning, which is very important for the creation of a watershed committee, something necessary and still embryonic in Maranhão State, Brazil.</p> Rafael Brugnolli Medeiros, Luiz Carlos Santos, José Fernando Rodrigues Bezerra, Quesia Duarte Silva, Silas Nogueira Melo Copyright (c) 2022 Rafael Brugnolli Medeiros, Luiz Carlos Santos, José Fernando Rodrigues Bezerra, Quesia Duarte Silva, Silas Nogueira Melo Wed, 18 Jan 2023 00:00:00 -0300 Classification of precipitation anomalies in the Rio Grande do Sul in ENSO events in the 20th century <p>This study investigated the intensity and spatial distribution of precipitation anomalies in Rio Grande do Sul state (RS) during the 20th century by analyzing the influence of El Niño – Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in its three phases. Reanalyzes from the University of Delaware (V5) were used. Precipitation anomalies were divided into three zones (Campaign, Plateau, Coast) to investigate possible differences in precipitation under ENSO influence. Alexandersson's Standard Normal Homogeneity Test was applied to verify possible structural breaks. Wavelets were used to rate the periodicity of precipitation anomalies into three phases. Anomalies that occurred in El Niño and La Niña phases were classified in contingency tables as weak, average, and strong to evaluate the qualitative behavior of these precipitation anomalies. It was found that precipitation anomalies presented a structural break in 1955 when the tendency to positive anomalies increased. From 1955, precipitation anomalies increased at least 0.5 standard deviation while the frequency of these anomalies decreased from 85 to 60 months. Peaks of positive anomalies in El Niño were higher than 200 mm. In neutral cases, anomalies intensified in 0.5 standard deviation since 1970. Negative anomalies did not show specific behavior in any ENSO phase. Contingency tables indicated that La Niña events did not present any visible influence pattern. It could intensify the episodes of positive and negative precipitation anomalies in at least 0.5 (-0.5) standard deviation. Therefore, La Niña events could increase or decrease the monthly anomaly but do not show any tendency to negative anomalies. Weak El Niños tends to contribute to negative precipitation anomalies while strong cases are associated with an average increase of 2 standard deviations in positive anomalies. It was concluded that the influence of ENSO in RS is stronger in El Niño than in La Niña. Still, both may induce negative and positive anomalies, depending on the intensity of each case. Wavelet analysis revealed that cycles that did not coincide with El Niño/La Niña showed an increase (decrease) of 0.5 (-0.5) standard deviation is positive (negative) anomalies. The increase of anomalies in neutral phases indicated that other climatic variability modes and the intensity of meteorological events decreased the 25 and 43 months cycles and increased the precipitation in RS.</p> Pedro Teixeira Valente, Denilson Ribeiro Viana, Francisco Eliseu Aquino, Jefferson Cardia Simões Copyright (c) 2022 Pedro Teixeira Valente, Denilson Ribeiro Viana, Francisco Eliseu Aquino, Jefferson Cardia Simões Thu, 05 Jan 2023 00:00:00 -0300 Anthropic Action and the Eutrophization Process in the Paraíba do Meio River <p>The appropriation and use of a hydrographic basin by society is a historical process, necessary and, above all, a generator of environmental problems that greatly alter the quality of water. One of the problems related to water quality is eutrophication. Many aquatic ecosystems have suffered from this problem, which consists of large inputs of Phosphorus and Nitrogen introduced into the riverbed, for example, through domestic and/or industrial effluents. This context of change in water quality by human action triggers the significant growth of phytoplanktonic and phytobenthic organisms, thus causing an imbalance in the dynamics of the aquatic ecosystem, as well as damage to society. In this context, this study aimed to evaluate the Trophic State of the Paraíba do Meio River and understand the unfolding and influences of society's relationship with the river and how this relationship has contributed to the eutrophication process. The materials and methods were based on: data acquisition of chemical and physical parameters from campaigns carried out monthly during the hydrological year of 2013; flow and precipitation data; adequate sanitary sewage data; laboratory analyses; determination of the Trophic State Index by the TRIX Model. It was evidenced that due to the varied anthropic activities that occurred in the hydrographic basin in question, with the significant introduction of nutrients such as Phosphorus and Nitrogen in the river bed, during the hydrological year of 2013, the Paraíba do Meio river presented different stages of eutrophication that range from mesotrophic to eutrophic.</p> Everson Oliveira Santos, Paulo Ricardo Petter Medeiros Copyright (c) 2022 Everson Oliveira Santos, Paulo Ricardo Petter Medeiros Mon, 09 Jan 2023 00:00:00 -0300 Spatial and temporal structure of Cerrado Conservation Units: combined heterogeneity for conservation <p>Unidades de Conservação - UC (type of Brazilian protected area) corresponds to approximately 18% of the national continental area, resulting from the integration of pressures from organized civil society materialized in public policies, whose selection criteria and distribution have varied over time. By observing the location of these protected areas, issues related to their relevance and Cerrado heterogeneity representativeness are of considerable importance for the conservation of life, since they make it possible to understand this Biome’s current situation, perspectives, and challenges for its conservation. Therefore, the objective here is to evaluate the spatial distribution of UC in the Cerrado from the temporal evolution of new units’ creation, in administrative spheres and categories, with a period starting in 1949, the year of the first UC creation in the Cerrado, until the end of 2010. The methodological procedures adopted consisted of a bibliographic survey, secondary databases consultation and data processing in a GIS environment. The results show that the distribution of UC is not regular in either space or time. In addition, many units correspond to isolated fragments of vegetation, with no connection to other areas and/or are of smaller dimensions, making it difficult to maintain the ecosystems present in them. In the national scenario, the Cerrado stands out in relation to the number and area of protected ones, which reinforces its important role in Brazilian conservation policies.</p> Sara Alves Santos, Luis Felipe Soares Cherem Copyright (c) 2022 Sara Alves Santos, Luis Felipe Soares Cherem Tue, 13 Dec 2022 00:00:00 -0300 Identification of land use conflicts in Permanent Preservation Area in a Brazilian Amazon sub-basin <p>The southern region of the Amazon stands out for the growing agricultural development and installation of large hydroelectric projects. Given this scenario, the objective of this study was to quantify the Áreas de Preservação Permanente (APPs), Permanent Preservation Areas, of the water bodies of the Teles Pires river basin according to the current legislation, checking whether there is conflict regarding the use and occupation of these areas, and then check for the occurrence of degradation and identify the environmental fragility of the area. Using the Modified Normalized Difference Water Index (MNDWI), the water bodies located in the study area were delineated and the APPs were delimited according to Law 12,651/2012. To identify the existence of conflicts within these areas, a map of land use and occupation was generated through Maximum Likelihood supervised classification, which was compared with the limits of the APPs, considering conflict areas whose land use is related to anthropic activities. Lastly, the potential and emerging fragility of the area were calculated, considering data of the slope, soil type and land cover/land use. The delimited APP comprised 3.96% of the total area of the basin and it showed a state of low degradation, with 83.83% of the area conserved under native vegetation cover and 15.93% showing conflicting type of use, with the occupation by pastures standing out, and among the APP categories mapped the headwaters were the most impacted. The spatialization of conflicts within the basin indicated that it has a very different conservation pattern, with the most critical areas concentrated in the center-east, where municipalities that have more than 40% of the APP occupied by anthropic activities are located. The north of the basin has areas with higher potential fragility, which is attenuated by the great soil protection.</p> Aline Kraeski, Frederico Terra Almeida, Adilson Pacheco Souza, Tânia Maria Carvalho Copyright (c) 2022 Aline Kraeski, Frederico Terra Almeida, Adilson Pacheco de Souza, Tânia Maria Carvalho Tue, 29 Nov 2022 00:00:00 -0300 Maputo, the divided city: fragmentation and (re)qualification <p>Maputo - the Mozambican capital - has expanded itself vertiginously in the midst of the late independence process (1975). Its population has been multiplied about twelve times during the decades from 1950 to 2020, reaching more than 1.1 million inhabitants. The political, commercial, and financial center of the country, the urban fabric of the capital is the stage for complex processes of economic growth and spatial segregation triggered in recent decades. The central region, known locally as the "cement city", concentrates on modern and widely diversified infrastructures. Squares and parks, luxury condos surrounded by modern offices, international standard hotels, shopping, and a set of pharaonic constructions - built at a cost of billions - set the landscape tone of progress induced and concentrated in favor of a small elite. However, beyond this "stronghold", around 92% of the population lives in the peripheral part of Maputo, popularly known as the "reed city". These, however, are located in very precarious housing, produced informally by the residents themselves, and subjected to the complete absence of infrastructure and public services. These issues contribute directly to the fact that Mozambique has the ninth-worst Human Development Index (HDI) on the planet. In this way, the present article - elaborated from fieldwork, interdisciplinary discussions and dialogues undertaken within the scope of an international scientific project between universities in Brazil and Mozambique - seeks to present and interpret the set of urban connections that make Maputo a fragmented and complex city, full of continuous socio-territorial transformations in which multiple clashes emerge linked to segregation, gentrification, real estate speculation, among others.</p> João Henrique Santana Stacciarini, Eguimar Felício Chaveiro, Helsio Amiro Motany de Albuquerque Azevedo Copyright (c) 2022 João Henrique Santana Stacciarini, Eguimar Felício Chaveiro Tue, 29 Nov 2022 00:00:00 -0300 The role of natural and anthropic factors in the variability of soil loss in the state of Goiás between 1985 and 2018 <p>Soil loss depends on natural and anthropic factors with high spatial and temporal variability, and can be inferred by predictive models such as the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE). In this sense, the objective of this work is to analyze the spatio-temporal distribution and variation of soil losses in the state of Goiás for the years 1985, 2000 and 2018, based on the application of RUSLE and using the drainage basin as a multiscale unit of analysis. The results generally show that there has been an increase in the average loss of soils in the state between the observed years, with the average in 1985 being 2.4 ton.ha-1.year-1, growing to 10.8 ton.ha-1.year-1 in 2000, and 11.56 ton.ha-1.year-1 in 2018. The hydrographic regions of Tocantins and Paraná presented the highest losses. In addition to the general control of the Cerrado conversion expansion, the state of Goiás presents two spatial soil loss patterns; one in which the control of natural factors predominates, being linked to morphogenetic aspects with a strong influence of the topographic factor; and the other being rain erosivity, spatialized in areas such as the “front” of Cuesta Caiapó, Serra Dourada and Serra dos Pireneus. When associated, these two factors define sensitive areas with the highest soil losses in the state of Goiás.</p> Lucas Espíndola Rosa, Luís Felipe Soares Cherem, Lionel Siamé Copyright (c) 2022 Lucas Espíndola Rosa, Luís Felipe Soares Cherem, Lionel Siamé Tue, 29 Nov 2022 00:00:00 -0300