Sociedade & Natureza <p>SOCIEDADE &amp; NATUREZA Journal is published by the Instituto de Geografia of the Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, being a vehicle for recording and scientific dissemination, its objectives are: publish unpublished critical review works on a topic pertinent to Geography and related areas or the result of research of an empirical nature, experimental or conceptual; encourage the exchange of experience in their specialty with other institutions, national or foreign, that maintain similar publications; defend and respect the principles of pluralism of philosophical, political and scientific ideas.</p> <p>There are no costs for authors regarding the submission and publication of articles (article processing charges (APCs) / article submission charges).</p> en-US <p align="justify"><strong>Authors hold the Copyright for articles published in this journal, and the journal holds the right for first publication. Because they appear in a public access journal, articles are licensed under Creative Commons Attribution (BY), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.</strong></p> (Prof. Dr. Silvio Carlos Rodrigues) (Ana Flávia Brandão Rocha) Mon, 27 Nov 2023 00:00:00 -0300 OJS 60 Hydraulic Dynamics of the Riparian Soil in the Chapadão do Diamante - Serra da Canastra, Minas Gerais <p>Serra da Canastra National Park, located in the Cerrado Biome in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, consolidates a conservation unit that includes the sources of several important Brazilian hydrographic basins. Given the significance of local and national water supply and regulation, this study aimed to analyze and understand the physical-hydraulic characteristics of the soil in the riparian zone within the park. Field data were collected using a rainfall simulator and a concentric ring infiltrometer. The results demonstrated an elevated infiltration capacity in the study área. Only 23.74% of the 57.4mm of artificially precipitated high-intensity rainfall was runoff. Basic infiltration velocity (BIV) values were considered very high (50.74 mm/h). Overall, these values were associated with the characteristics of the landscape, highlighting the importance of vegetation in the soil cover and the physical attributes of the soil. These factors influenced the modulation of the soil's capacity to retain, infiltrate, and store large volumes of water. In this regard, the importance of these riparian zones for the environment was emphasized as they play a crucial role in protecting watercourses. They act as barriers against erosive flow from upstream areas, incorporating water into the soil profile to store and release over time. These areas thus become important sites for water regulation.</p> Jefferson Gomes Confessor, Lara Luiza Silva, Anna Beatriz Pereira dos Santos, Natália Aparecida Rodrigues Lima Copyright (c) 2023 Jefferson Gomes Confessor, Lara Luiza Silva, Anna Beatriz Pereira dos Santos, Natália Aparecida Rodrigues Lima Mon, 17 Jun 2024 00:00:00 -0300 Impact of BR-282 highway on the mortality of wild felids in the extreme west of Santa Catarina: threat to conservation <p>Among human impacts, road kills are an important source of mortality for wild animals, as highways and roads result in the fragmentation of natural habitats. Felids are strongly negatively impacted and, although roads are mentioned as potential threats, few studies address how felids interact with these environments. We aimed to describe the richness and composition of wild felids, analyze the spatial and temporal effect, and identify road-kill hotspots of these species on a stretch of the BR-282 highway between the cities of São Miguel do Oeste and Paraíso, in the extreme west of the State of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. From December 2021 to November 2022, we traveled a 28-km stretch weekly to collect data on road-killed wild felids, and at each carcass sighted, the vehicle was parked to collect information, photographs, and geographical coordinates. During this period, 26 specimens of three different species were found, viz. <em>Leopardus guttulus</em> (southern tiger cat), <em>Leopardus wiedii</em> (margay), and <em>Herpailurus yagouaroundi</em> (jaguarundi). In addition to the significant number of wild felids found, a hotspot for road kills of these species was identified.</p> Karen Cristine de Albuquerque Ferreira Pereira, Raqueli Teresinha França, Jackson Fabio Preuss Copyright (c) 2023 Karen Cristine de Albuquerque Ferreira Pereira, Raqueli Teresinha França, Jackson Fabio Preuss Mon, 17 Jun 2024 00:00:00 -0300 Jalapão Mosaic: Perspectives and Challenges for Implementing the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) <p>The objective of this article was to evaluate the stage of implementation of the SDGs in the municipalities that belong to the Jalapão Mosaic (JM), exploring the opportunities and obstacles to achieving the SDGs in this territory. The methodological basis involves a quantitative approach of hierarchical clusters and a correlation matrix based on secondary data, identifying the most relevant SDGs for the region and the challenges for their implementation. The study reveals 15 SDGs with high relevance for the JM, with emphasis on SDGs 1 (End Poverty), 2 (Zero Hunger), 3 (Quality Health), 4 (Quality Education), 8 (Decent Work and Growth Economic), 10 (Reducing Inequalities), 13 (Climate Action), 15 (Life on Earth) and 16 (Peace, Justice and Strong Institutions). However, several challenges prevent the full implementation of these objectives, such as the scarcity of financial and human resources, marked social inequalities, environmental degradation, weaknesses in governance and low social participation. The results showed that municipalities in the region are far from meeting the goals of the 2030 Agenda, despite having high performance in SDGs of the Economic Axis. Despite the obstacles, the study also presents positive perspectives for the future of the TCJ. The region has rich potential for sustainable development, driven by its rich biodiversity and natural resources. Furthermore, the growing interest in ecological tourism in the region can generate opportunities for local development. To overcome the challenges and achieve the SDGs in the JM, the study presents some recommendations, such as increasing investments in social and environmental public policies, strengthening local governance and social participation, promoting environmental education and valuing local culture, supporting the development of sustainable economic activities. As final considerations, it is proposed that local managers and stakeholders be trained to understand these goals, in order to guide public policies, so that municipalities observe the best practices inside and outside Tocantins for Socioeconomic Development. Furthermore, the study's conclusions and recommendations can be useful for formulating more effective public policies and promoting the well-being of local populations, contributing to the construction of a more prosperous and sustainable future for the region.</p> Helga Midori Iwamoto, Viviane de Araújo Leal, Airton Cardoso Cançado Copyright (c) 2023 Helga Midori Iwamoto, Viviane Araújo Leal, Airton Cardoso Cançado Mon, 13 May 2024 00:00:00 -0300 Geographic analysis of the distribution of surface temperature, vegetation cover and its relationship with socioeconomic indicators – Cuiabá/MT <p>In Brazil and around the world, the problems resulting from urban planning, changes in land cover and the increase in urban infrastructure influence temperature change. The aim of this research is to understand the difference in temperature over the last 36 years (1985-2021) in the city of Cuiabá/MT, and its relationship with vegetation and socioeconomic and racial-ethnic factors. Annual images (36 images) from the Landsat 5 and 8 satellites between 1985 and 2021 were used, and Google Earth Engine was used to obtain this data for the urban area of the city of Cuiabá. Mapping of the spatial distribution of surface temperature, vegetation and changes in land use and cover was carried out using data from the MapBiomas project and socio-economic data from the Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE, Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics in English) 2010 census. The results indicated that over the last 36 years Cuiabá's surface temperature has increased by an average of 13°C, as part of the result of the growth of urban infrastructure and loss of vegetation cover, specifically in the peripheral areas. There is an inequality between the high-income population living in neighborhoods with milder temperatures and the low-income population living in neighborhoods with higher temperatures. In the temperature and skin color data, the white population generally lives in neighborhoods with milder temperatures, unlike the black population, which mostly suffers from high temperatures.</p> Lucyla Silva Soria, Vagner Paz Mengue, Fernando Comerlato Scottá Copyright (c) 2023 Lucyla Silva Soria, Vagner Paz Mengue, Fernando Comerlato Scottá Wed, 24 Apr 2024 00:00:00 -0300 Function and Form in Territorial Planning: The Case of Lens in the Mining Basin in Nord and Pas-de-Calais – France <p>This article purposes to engage in a discussion regarding the transformations and restructuring of the city of Lens, located in the department of Pas-de-Calais, in the administrative region of Hauts-de-France, northern France. This discussion pertains to the spatial transformations of the categories of form and function during the evolution of industrial capitalism and, subsequently, globalization. The process of "Territorial Reconversion" implemented in the area, through state planning, from the 1960s to 1990 (the year of the closure of the last coal mine), aimed to alter the region's specialization in response to the serious issues of unemployment and economic recession. Thus, through the establishment of infrastructure and urban remodeling, the French state, in association with policies from the European Union, involving private companies and civil organizations in the region, organized itself to transform the area by changing the economic profile linked to mining and textile production to more dynamic and productive activities. These strategies influenced the transformations of the urban space of the city of Lens, reshaping it towards cultural activities (especially music and cinema workshops) and tourist activities. Among the latter, the installation of a branch of the Louvre Museum stands out. This article aims to reflect on these transformations in Lens, based on the analysis of the introduction of new forms and functions, as well as the re-signification of old forms enveloped by new functions.</p> Mauricio Aquilante Policarpo, Rita de Cassia Martins de Souza Copyright (c) 2023 Mauricio Aquilante Policarpo, Rita de Cassia Martins de Souza Thu, 25 Apr 2024 00:00:00 -0300 Traditional Territory in a Protected Area: Territorial Dynamics and Wildlife Management in the Amanã Sustainable Development Reserve, Amazonas, Brazil <p>Implementing sustainable management strategies for common-use resources influences the territorialization processes of traditional peoples and communities. This article aims to provide historical context on the use of natural resources in the Amanã Lake region, Maraã-AM. It also seeks to describe the territorial boundaries and hunting areas of one riverine community, presenting a proposal for establishing the sustainable management of subsistence hunting. The data cover a fifty-year period and were obtained through semi-structured interviews, systematic mapping of hunting locations, and participatory mapping of resource use in the region. The proposed zoning for the management of wildlife was based on previously established models in the region and on discussions with the villagers. Over the period, two territorial logics were identified, and their combination has had significant impacts on the territoriality of the studied community. The hunting area used by community members shrinked as its designated use area but at a different pace, leading to overlaps and conflicts over resource use. The proposed spatial wildlife management (of 22.216,22 ha of area) was considered appropriate by the villagers, but there is still a need to develop this wildlife management strategy based on local territorialities.</p> Luiz Francisco Loureiro, Lísley Pereira Lemos, Caetano Franco, Carlos Frederico Alves de Vasconcelos-Neto, João Valsecchi Copyright (c) 2023 Luiz Francisco Loureiro, Lísley Pereira Lemos, Caetano Franco, Carlos Frederico Alves de Vasconcelos-Neto, João Valsecchi Thu, 18 Apr 2024 00:00:00 -0300 Agroecology in Field Education in Ceará, Brazil <p>In this article, we analyze Agroecology as a formative matrix for Field Education in the State of Ceará, Brazil. We also observed that agroecology developed in rural schools in Ceará, has a subversive character and, therefore, can be read as a ‘contentious territorial policy’. In addition to the bibliographical survey and the field experience at Escola do Campo Florestan Fernandes, located in Assentamento Santana, in Monsenhor Tabosa (CE), informal conversations and semi-structured interviews were data collection instruments used in this research. The experimental field and agroecological backyards revealed the diversity of crops and livestock. Furthermore, social technologies showed the efficiency of the peasant unit, in the context of scarcity in the semi-arid region. In the school curriculum, together with the common core, the diversified base dynamizes agroecological knowledge and practices materialized in the peasant territory. The 'socio-territorial development project’ involves the students and all the subjects involved in the MST educational process. In this sense, we consider that rural schools in Ceará, based on Movement Pedagogy and Agroecology, have boosted the protagonism of peasant youth who have chosen to study and remain, developing new perspectives and alternatives to the challenges of the struggle for food sovereignty, quality education, with dignity and social justice in the countryside and in the city.</p> Adeliane Vieira de Oliveira, Alexandra Maria de Oliveira Copyright (c) 2023 ADELIANE VIEIRA DE OLIVEIRA, Alexandra Maria de Oliveira Mon, 08 Apr 2024 00:00:00 -0300 Analysis of the Formulation of the National Biofuels Policy - Renovabio: the Territorial, the Political and the Economic <p>Concern over climate change currently occupies a central role, with the staging of world environmental events to discuss the effects of excessive fossil fuel use and their negative impacts on the environment. The Paris Agreement was signed within this perspective, in which Brazil adopted targets for the reconfiguration of its energy matrix and subsequently created the Política Nacional de Biocombustíveis (RenovaBio - National Biofuels Policy), through Law no. 13.576/2017, to reach these targets. As another public policy aimed at encouraging agribusiness, being derived from a strong history of the sugar-energy sector depending on state measures to sustain it, it is important to reflect beyond the formal content of the public policy and observe the interests it seeks to defend. Furthermore, by creating an expansion mechanism for the cultivation of sugarcane, RenovaBio brings territorial and environmental impacts. Thus, the present article aims to analyze the formulation stage of the public policy, to verify the economic and political context that supported the approval of, and subsequent alterations to RenovaBio. Methodologically, the analysis was carried out on three levels: Superficial; Territorial Coverage; and Structural. It was found that there was the formation of a network of actors involved in the process, which demonstrates the existence of power relationships, at times translated through subordination, resource dependence, or political support. These actors were involved in the construction of the text of the Law to favor the group, the approval of the bill in record time, its directed regulation, the relaxation of requirements, and the fixing of high Decarbonization Credit acquisition targets. RenovaBio is extremely promising; however, there are loopholes that need to be resolved and a series of political interferences that hinder the development, transparency, and credibility of the program.</p> Virginia Corrêa Santos de Andrade, Gelze Serrat de Souza Campos Rodrigues Copyright (c) 2023 Virginia Corrêa Santos de Andrade, Gelze Serrat de Souza Campos Rodrigues Wed, 27 Mar 2024 00:00:00 -0300 Unraveling Environmental Impact Assessment Practitioners in Brazil: Profile, Education and Perception of EIA Practice among CBAI Participants <p>Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) practice demands interactions between different actors, and its effectiveness depends on how they respond to their own expectations, as well as the expectations of other actors and legal standards. Thus, EIA practitioners play an important role in improving this process. This study examines the profile of Brazilian EIA practitioners who participated in at least one edition of the Congresso Brasileiro de Avaliação de Impacto (CBAI - Brazilian Congress on Impact Assessment in English), as well as their perception of EIA practice within the country. It is a quantitative and qualitative research based on the premise that EIA practitioners would have participated in at least one of the first five congresses (CBAI) promoted by the Associação Brasileira de Avaliação de Impacto (ABAI - Brazilian Association for Impact Assessment in English). Data collection involved distributing an online questionnaire, available between September 26th and November 1st, 2022, to all 794 contacts registered at ABAI. A total of 217 responses were obtained, with participants comprising 48% men and 52% women, with the majority falling between 25 and 45 years of age. All respondents had studied EIA (through undergraduate or postgraduate courses, or in other contexts). Most participants had more than 10 years of experience working with EIA, primarily in consultancy and academia. Perceptions regarding the quality, problems, strengths and opportunities of Brazilian EIA practice generally aligned with the literature. Respondents tended to disagree with streamlining EIA and Environmental Licensing procedures and to agree with the necessity of implementing Strategic Environmental Assessment in Brazil. The results are important to understand who Brazilian EIA practitioners are and what this portion of EIA practitioners think.</p> Maria Rita Raimundo Almeida, Fernanda Aparecida Veronez, Anne Caroline Malvestio Copyright (c) 2023 Maria Rita Raimundo Almeida, Fernanda Aparecida Veronez, Anne Caroline Malvestio Fri, 15 Mar 2024 00:00:00 -0300 Touristic activity and disturbances over Nearctic migratory birds oin the coast of Piauí State, Brazil <p>The migration of birds is a phenomenon that leads thousands of individuals to move between different areas for feeding and breeding, with these movements often crossing geopolitical borders. This behavior is crucial for the survival of many species. However, anthropogenic impacts are affecting the habitats of these species, contributing to the decline in bird populations. In light of this, the aim of this study was to analyze the disturbances caused by tourist activities on migratory birds visiting the estuaries of the Cardoso and Camurupim rivers on the coast of the state of Piauí and propose measures to mitigate disturbances on the birds. Samples were taken at three observation points, where changes in bird behavior in response to tourist activities were analyzed. Binoculars, a photographic camera, and a laser rangefinder were used to assist in delineating impact zones. Although various tourist activities occur in the region, the main disturbances are caused by kitesurfing and tourists walking near the feeding or resting areas of the species. Calidris minutilla, Calidris pusilla, Calidris alba, Actitis macularius, and Charadriius semipalmatus were the least sensitive species to disturbances, reacting more frequently within impact zones Z = 0-30m and Z = 30-60m, while the species Pluvialis squatarola, Numenius hudsonicus, Tringa melanoleuca, Calidris canutus, Limnodromus griseus, and Pandion haliaetus showed greater escape distances. The results of this study show that tourists walking and kitesurfing are the main activities impacting migratory birds in the region, highlighting the need for measures to mitigate such impacts. Based on the results, the creation of minimum protection zones of 160m and 200m is recommended to mitigate disturbances caused by the approach of bathers and kitesurfers.</p> Airton Janes da Silva Siqueira, Muryllo dos Santos Nascimento, Suely Silva Santos, Anderson Guzzi, Solano de Souza Braga Copyright (c) 2023 Airton Janes da Silva Siqueira, Muryllo dos Santos Nascimento, Suely Silva Santos, Anderson Guzzi, Solano de Souza Braga Fri, 08 Mar 2024 00:00:00 -0300 COVID-19 in Brazil: A Look at Gender in Mortality in 2020 and 2021 <p>COVID-19 is portrayed as a disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, which is extremely contagious and mainly affects the respiratory system. The pandemic has impacted the lives of men and women disproportionately, from the risk of exposure and biological susceptibility to infection to the social and economic impacts. In this sense, this research aims to analyze the relationship between gender and mortality from COVID-19 in the Brazilian Federative Units. This is an applied, exploratory and qualitative-quantitative study. Mortality rates by gender and Federation Unit were calculated based on data obtained from the Civil Registry - Transparency Portal for the years 2020 and 2021. The results show disparities in the number of deaths between men and women in various age groups. In addition, mortality rates among men were considerably higher compared to women, especially in 2021. This discrepancy was notable in men over 60, particularly in the North and Northeast regions. In addition, Roraima stood out with the highest mortality rates for both genders in the two years analyzed. These findings highlight the importance of policies and strategies that are sensitive to gender and the needs of vulnerable groups, in order to mitigate impacts during pandemic periods. Furthermore, approaches that consider gender disparities can contribute significantly to the effectiveness of public health measures and the general well-being of the population.</p> Walef Pena Guedes, Cibele Roberta Sugahara, Denise Helena Lombardo Ferreira, Mariana Inês Paludi Copyright (c) 2023 Walef Pena Guedes, Cibele Roberta Sugahara, Denise Helena Lombardo Ferreira, Mariana Inês Paludi Tue, 05 Mar 2024 00:00:00 -0300 The Role of The State in Diversifying and Expanding the Brazilian Energy Matrix: an Analysis of Legislation <p>Despite having an essentially renewable electricity matrix, the dependence on hydropower, in the current climate risk scenario and the associated environmental and social impacts, point to the need to diversify energy generation in Brazil. To this end, state action is fundamental for designing and implementing public policies for the country's energy matrix. However, this diversification does not occur at the desired speed and scale. Thus, this article analyses the Brazilian regulatory environmental policies to assess the participation of the Federal constituencies, States, and municipalities in scaling renewable sources in the national electricity matrix. The research revealed that specific legislation on energy is scarce, and much of what is applied is taken from the general environmental legislation. We noticed that, by constitutional imposition, the Federal constituencies have the legislative competence on the theme and, therefore, establish norms and general rules, while States and municipalities act marginally, especially in fiscal matters and environmental licensing. The need for more objectivity, standardization, and the non-existence of specific technical criteria in the norms about energy use. We also verified that most of what was legally established constitutes government programs, not state policies. It is necessary to extend the participation of states and Municipalities in elaborating national energy use plans and in the revision and technical standardization of the licensing norms. These gaps must be filled so sustainable development, a principle established in the Constitution, is strengthened and made possible, with the participation of States and Municipalities.</p> Paulo Roberto Ribeiro Morais, Carlos Moreira de Souza Júnior, Jocimara Britto Souza Lobão, Carlos Alessandre Domingos Lentini Copyright (c) 2023 Paulo Roberto Ribeiro Morais, Carlos Moreira de Souza Júnior, Jocimara Britto Souza Lobão, Carlos Alessandre Domingos Lentini Mon, 04 Mar 2024 00:00:00 -0300 Family farming in the Metropolitan Region of Fortaleza (RMF), Ceará <p>This article aims to deepen the discussion about agricultural activity in metropolitan cities. Our analysis focuses specifically on the Fortaleza Metropolitan Area (FMA), State of Ceará, Brazil, and allows us to further understand family farming in that area. For this purpose, we reviewed a set of primary and secondary data regarding the profile of the producers and agricultural and food processing establishments in the metropolitan area under analysis. This multifaceted approach helped us identify key issues related to production and food systems in the FMA, and showed the importance of a research agenda focused on evaluating the potential of family farming in this specific context. This study presents the production strategies adopted, the challenges faced and the opportunities identified by family farmers. Discussing agriculture in metropolitan areas help us connect socio-spatial and socio-environmental problems, in addition to enabling us to suggest the development of cross-sectoral public policies. By offering a comprehensive overview, this study aims to contribute to effective policy making, promoting the sustainability and resilience of family farming in metropolitan contexts. We hope that the reflection on agriculture developed in such areas and its characteristics in local and metropolitan scenarios will be helpful to researchers, managers and those responsible for the implementation and execution of public policies, as well as other agents and entities interested in family (and urban) agriculture.</p> Iara Rafaela Gomes Copyright (c) 2023 Iara Rafaela Gomes Thu, 08 Feb 2024 00:00:00 -0300 Models and Values of Fees and Incentives for Financing Sustainable Urban Drainage <p>Challenges are observed worldwide in the cost of urban drainage through fees compromising the sustainability of its management. Strategies are needed for greater involvement of users of the drainage system, assuming their responsibility for the cost of this system and collaborating with the system on their properties through the containment and delay of the surface runoff of rainwater to the public network from sustainable technologies. Incentives for these users to implement technologies that minimize the outflow of their properties can be an essential strategy for implementing fees. Therefore, this work aimed to evaluate, through a systematic review (SR), the values and methods of drainage fees and incentives for urban environmental services provided by users of drainage systems. The SR was developed from a search on the Web of Science (WoS) and Scopus platforms, whose data were analyzed using the StArt system. Among the 199 articles studied and published between 2010 and 2021, it was possible to relate fees and incentives practiced. Concerning fee models, the ERU method (Equivalent Residential Unit) was predominant. Regarding the incentive models, the most used was tax reduction.</p> Ana Paula Camargo de Vicente, Karla Maria Silva de Faria, Klebber Teodomiro Martins Formiga Copyright (c) 2023 Ana Paula Camargo de Vicente, Karla Maria Silva de Faria, Klebber Teodomiro Martins Formiga Fri, 09 Feb 2024 00:00:00 -0300 Critical Points Concerning Artisanal Fishing: an Analysis from the Perspective of Artisanal Fishers in Southeastern Brazil <p>In Southeastern Brazil, artisanal fishing communities reside, operate and suffer from interference originating from various economic branches. Thus, this study is aimed at identifying the critical points concerning the practice of artisanal fishing from the traditional knowledge of artisanal fishers in the coastal mesoregion of ES. 102 ethnographic interviews were conducted in 2022 with artisanal fishers through a semistructured questionnaire containing both open and closed questions. The critical points of fishing were identified through a SWOT analysis (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats). All the participants were men (n=102; 100%), and they reported that negative critical points (weaknesses and threats) exert the greatest influence on fishing. From the perspective of these fishers, the main problems that interfere with artisanal fishing are the lack of adequate fish storage, the precariousness of the vessels, the reduction in fish stocks, the high perishability of fish, the devaluation of traditional knowledge, and the presence of middlemen that prevent the commercialization of fish production from moving directly from the fisher to the final consumer. The identification of these critical points enables the recognition of flaws in the production chain and the realization that they can be minimized through public policies and comanagement strategies related to the economic, ecological, and social development of the sector.</p> Juliana Silva Abreu, Laura Helena de Oliveira Côrtes, Camilah Antunes Zappes Copyright (c) 2023 Juliana Silva Abreu, Laura Helena de Oliveira Côrtes, Camilah Antunes Zappes Wed, 31 Jan 2024 00:00:00 -0300 A TOPSIS-Based Multicriteria Approach for Reservoir Assessment <p>Abstract Water management in the Brazilian semi-arid region has been, for decades, a challenge for institutions and decision-makers due to its intrinsic characteristics. The density of human occupation makes the region very vulnerable to drought events and problems related to the quality and need for water use are central issues. For this reason, this study presents an approach to assess the situation of water reservoirs in the semiarid based on the Water Quality Index (WQI) and Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM). The WQI was used to calculate water quality and later applied as a criterion for the MCDM model proposed. The model also considers the need and availability criteria to assess the reservoirs of the two largest drainage basins in Rio Grande do Norte state, Brazil. The MCDM method used was R-TOPSIS since it is more flexible and robust for future analyses in other situations. The results showed the condition of the reservoirs, in order to support decision-makers in the operation of these facilities and enable multiple use of the waters. The combined approach proposed may provide important contributions in the analysis of water reservoirs in order to supply the semiarid region, where water issue is critical.</p> Renan Felinto de Farias Aires, Camila Cristina Rodrigues Salgado Copyright (c) 2023 Renan Felinto de Farias Aires, Camila Cristina Rodrigues Salgado Mon, 29 Jan 2024 00:00:00 -0300 From Urbanization to Metropolization: A Conceptual Approach <p>The article approaches the processes of metropolization with regard to urban development and spatial organization of the city in their continuous and articulated processes. The perspective of this analysis is that there is a new basis for urban/metropolitan dynamics, moving out from an industrial and post-Fordist economy to a financialization of the economy, which we call metropolization. From the recent dynamics of the concentration of people and the expansion of urban space, some discussions can emerge about the new socio-spatial reality. Concerning metropolization, our main objective is to discuss the concept of urbanization and metropolization, aiming to understand the spatial transformations of the contemporary world. In methodological terms, we sought a bibliographic survey on the dialogical relationship between urbanization and metropolization with Brazilian and foreign authors who are relevant in the Brazilian academic literature and, in turn, are present in the urban/metropolitan analysis. The presence of temporal, economic and spatial dimensions has been deemed the main drivers for metropolization. As a result, the concept of metropolization was understood as a socio-spatial process that interferes in the forms, functions and dynamics of large urban spaces, and that has been acquiring importance in the context of the contemporary world, being a characteristic that pervades urbanization, reaching both countries in the global South as in the global North.</p> Tiago Estevam Gonçalves, José Borzacchiello da Silva, Enos Feitosa de Araújo Copyright (c) 2023 Tiago Estevam Gonçalves, José Borzacchiello da Silva, Enos Feitosa de Araújo Wed, 17 Jan 2024 00:00:00 -0300 Influence of Vinasse and Mechanized Harvesting on the Physical and Chemical Aspects of Soil in Paudalho Municipality - PE <p>Sugarcane cultivation methods and processes usually have negative impacts on the environment. However, this industry has been seeking more sustainable technologies, ranging from the adequate disposal of the organic residues produced to the elimination of pre-harvest burning and introduction of mechanized harvest. The objective of this work was to verify the influence of vinasse application and mechanized harvesting on the physical and chemical aspects of a dystrophic Red Yellow Argisol of medium texture, cultivated with sugarcane. For this, a field experiment in a Completely Randomized Design, with a factorial scheme was conducted. Four management treatments, with three replications, were evaluated: T1 - Without application of vinasse, burned cane followed by manual harvest, without irrigation; T2 - With application of vinasse, mechanized harvest, without irrigation; T3 - With application of vinasse, mechanized harvest, with irrigation; T4 - With application of vinasse, burned cane followed by manual harvest, without irrigation. Soil samples were collected in three depths (0 – 20 cm, 20 – 40 cm and 40 – 60 cm) and soil physical and chemical characteristics were determined. The data obtained were submitted to ANOVA and compared by the Tukey test (p≤0.05) of probability, using the statistical program ASSISTAT 7.7 beta. The results showed that fertigation with vinasse did not influence soil density, particle density, and total porosity. However, mechanized harvesting increased soil density and total porosity. The soil in the experimental unit without vinasse application presented a more acidic pH and high levels of aluminum saturation, causing a decrease in the availability of nutrients, and the soils treated with vinasse had an increase in nutrient availability. Therefore, the addition of vinasse can be an important strategy in maintaining and increasing long-term soil fertility in sugarcane cropping systems.</p> Valquíria do Nascimento Tavares, Inaldo Jerfson Sobreira da Silva, Fernando Cartaxo Rolim Neto, Roberto da Boa Viagem Parahyba, Rômulo Simões Cezar Menezes, Marcus Metri Correa, Maria o Socorro Bezerra de Araújo Copyright (c) 2023 Valquíria do Nascimento Tavares, Inaldo Jerfson Sobreira da Silva, Fernando Cartaxo Rolim Neto, Roberto da Boa Viagem Parahyba, Rômulo Simões Cezar Menezes, Marcus Metri Correa, Maria o Socorro Bezerra de Araújo Mon, 15 Jan 2024 00:00:00 -0300 The Dunes Contribution to the Ecosystem Service of Coastal Protection on the Northern Coast of RS <p>Coastal dunes have a crucial role in offering the ecosystem service of natural coastal protection. This paper investigates the importance of dunes in providing the ecosystem service of natural coastal protection on the North Coast of the State of Rio Grande do Sul (RS) in southern Brazil. The <em>Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoffs</em> (<em>InVEST®) Coastal Vulnerability Model</em> was used to quantify the relative susceptibility to coastal erosion and flooding within the study area. First, the model was run to assess the susceptibility to coastal hazards considering the presence of dunes. Then, the model was run again without the presence of dunes. By comparing the results of the two model simulations, it was possible to identify where dunes contribute to reducing coastal exposure, which indirectly reflects their role in providing the ecosystem service of natural coastal protection. There are two main dune fields in the study area, one in the northern coastal sector and one in the southern sector, respectively in the municipalities of Torres and Cidreira. The index of exposure values produced by the two model simulations were very similar for locations along the Torres coastline. In contrast, along the coast of Cidreira, results from the model simulation without dunes produced higher exposure values than the simulation with the presence of dunes, suggesting that the dunes have an important role in offering natural coastal protection. Dunes are a natural barrier against coastal erosion and flooding, but they are not the only factor influencing the ecosystem service of coastal protection. In Torres, for instance, the local topography and the wind patterns contribute to reducing local exposure. The greatest threat in this sector is the urban sprawl.</p> Daniela Forgiarini da Silva, Tatiana Silva da Silva, Luciana Slomp Esteves, Giuliana Andréia Sfreddo Copyright (c) 2023 Daniela Forgiarini da Silva, Tatiana Silva da Silva, Luciana Slomp Esteves, Giuliana Andréia Sfreddo Mon, 15 Jan 2024 00:00:00 -0300 Growth and productive sophistication of Minas Artisanal Cheese from Canastra: an analysis based on innovative processes in natural resources <p>This article aims to delineate the role of innovation in the successful outcomes of Minas Artisanal Cheese (QMA) from Canastra. The methodological foundation is built upon literature review, documentary analysis, field research, and interviews. Our findings reveal the interplay between traditional and scientific knowledge as a pivotal element in the productive sophistication of Canastra’s QMA, facilitating work enhancement and striving to meet consumer market demands while maintaining local know-how and practices, which the society-nature relationship has historically shaped. The discussion is situated within the realm of empirical studies on natural resource-based innovation in Latin America and reflections on Territorial Innovation Systems (TIS), which consider a multiscale perspective of the innovation process prevalent in studies in the field of Knowledge and Innovation Geography. Despite advancements, we underscore that the establishment of Canastra’s QMA still faces challenges stemming from typical structural frailties of peripheral TIS. We aspire that these results not only contribute to comprehending the productive region of Canastra’s QMA but also serve as a supportive framework for innovation policies that acknowledge the necessity of contextual considerations in regional realities.</p> Letícia Silva Bastos, Flávia Luciane Consoni, Fernando Campos Mesquita Copyright (c) 2023 Letícia Silva Bastos, Flávia Luciane Consoni, Fernando Campos Mesquita Wed, 10 Jan 2024 00:00:00 -0300 Meta-Analysis of Scientific Production on Soils in the Municipalities of the Triângulo Mineiro and Alto Paranaíba in the Last 30 Years <p>The geographical mesoregion of the Triângulo Mineiro and Alto Paranaíba has an economy strongly focused on agribusiness, with grain and sugarcane production levels that put them at the forefront of the economic and political scenario of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. However, scientific production focused on soil diversity in this region has long been undervalued compared to other regions of the state and country where the soils exhibit more diverse and, therefore, more intriguing geological and geomorphological characteristics. This paper aims to evaluate the evolution and spatialization of bibliographic production with the central theme of soils in the Triângulo Mineiro and Alto Paranaíba mesoregion. As such, papers from the last three decades within the municipalities of the studied region were selected from five important journals. The papers from the initial screening were analyzed for the following: the profile of the authors (gender and institutional affiliation); number of authors per paper; methods used; and distribution of these papers across the selected region. The results indicate a concentration of papers in four municipalities and a total lack of publications from another 40. Males heavily dominated scientific production in the analyzed segments. Despite the mesoregion having 11 public higher education institutions, most municipalities' soil research was incipient. Regarding the methods used by researchers, in municipalities where more institutional partnerships were made possible, there was an increase in the number of techniques and methods explored in investigating problems. Although the study area presents relative geological and geomorphological homogeneity that gives a monotonous aspect to the landscape, knowledge of its pedodiversity, and its economic significance for agriculture, justifies the need to resume soil studies in the Triângulo Mineiro and Alto Paranaíba, particularly by exploring methods and municipalities that are still little known.</p> Henrique Amorim Machado, Patrícia Soares Rezende, Alcione Rodrigues Milagres, Vinícius Nunes de Lima Gabriel, Fabricio Cunha Fonseca Copyright (c) 2023 Henrique Amorim Machado, Patrícia Soares Rezende, Alcione Rodrigues Milagres, Vinícius Nunes de Lima Gabriel, Fabricio Cunha Fonseca Wed, 10 Jan 2024 00:00:00 -0300 Changes in Soil Organic Carbon Stocks Due to Land Use Changes in the Extended São Francisco River Basin <p>As the largest carbon reservoir in terrestrial ecosystems, soils play a critical role in food production, mitigation and adaption to climate change, and sustainability of agroecosystems. In this context, the aim of this study is to estimate variations in soil carbon stocks resulting from land use and management changes in different biomes that compose the Bacia Estendida do Rio São Francisco (BESF - Extended São Francisco River Basin), between 1985 and 2017. For this, remote sensing data and information from the IBGE agriculture and livestock census were used, in addition to emission factors to estimate soil organic carbon (SOC) changes. The results indicate that BESF had about 5.70 million ha degraded in the analyzed period, in addition to an increase of 0.72 Tg C year-1 in SOC stocks. The sub-medium São Francisco River basin recorded the highest SOC gain, with an increase of 0.54 Tg C ha-1; on the other hand, the sub-medium São Francisco River sub-basin had the greatest SOC losses, with an estimated reduction of 0.07 Tg C year-1. In short, this study provides important evidence on changes in SOC stocks in the region, emphasizing the importance of native vegetation conversion to agriculture and livestock systems under sustainable soil management for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions and maintaining soil quality.</p> Saniel Carlos dos Santos, Higor Costa de Brito, Iana Alexandra Alves Rufino, Stoécio Malta Ferreira Maia Copyright (c) 2023 Saniel Carlos dos Santos, Higor Costa de Brito, Iana Alexandra Alves Rufino, Stoécio Malta Ferreira Maia Fri, 15 Dec 2023 00:00:00 -0300 ICMS-ecológico as a public policy instrument for the preservation of biodiversity: a study applied in small towns in Paraná, Brazil <p>The Ecological Tax on the Circulation of Goods and Services for Biodiversity (ICMS-E) was created in 1991 as an initiative of the government of Paraná State. It is an important public policy instrument for the preservation of biodiversity in small municipalities that house Conservation Units. The aim of this article was to analyze whether resources from the ICMS-E, added to municipal tax revenues, improve sustainable development over time. As part of the methodological procedures, a descriptive-comparative analysis was conducted between municipalities that receive and do not receive ICMS-E. For this purpose, a sampling of the 399 municipalities that comprise Paraná State was conducted, involving 193 municipalities with a population of up to 50,000 inhabitants. The comparative analysis was based on the definition of two study groups, each constituted by 76 municipalities: one called the ICMS-E Recipient Group, municipalities that receive the ecological tax; and the Control Group, composed of those that do not receive it. The main results indicate that 19.80% of the municipalities are concentrated in the North Central mesoregion, while the Metropolitan Region of Curitiba is home to 33.45% of the population of Paraná. In relation to population loss, this factor represents 44.73% in the ICMS-E Recipient Group, while in the Control Group this number is 34.21%. In relation to the Environmental Management Function, 60.53% of the municipalities in the Recipient Group applied up to 75% of this tax to this function. It was concluded that the ICMS-E is an important incentive for the preservation of biodiversity and represents a significant increase in resources for the local governments of small municipalities.</p> Nelson Granados Moratta, Christian Luiz da Silva, Alain Hernández Santoyo Copyright (c) 2023 Nelson Granados Moratta, Christian Luiz da Silva, Alain Hernández Santoyo Thu, 14 Dec 2023 00:00:00 -0300 Water Body Extraction Using a Sentinel-1 Scene and Artificial Neural Networks: Case Study – Carpina-PE Dam <p>Surface water is the most important resource and environmental factor for maintaining human survival and ecosystem stability, therefore accurate and timely information on surface water is urgently needed. In this study, an image classification approach using Artificial Neural Networks was proposed for mapping the surface water extent of the Carpina-PE Dam using radar image from the Sentinel-1 satellite, as well as its polarizations (VH and VV) and the generated water indices (SDWI and SWI). All datasets presented limitations in detecting small water bodies, such as narrow rivers, and overestimation in pasture areas, generating commission errors ranging from 16.5% to 28.9% and omission errors ranging from 1.47% and 3.5%, with emphasis on VH and VV polarizations. The overall classification accuracy ranged from 96% to 98% and R² values reached close to 1, where the best performance was seen for SDWI and SWI. The comparative experiments indicated that unitary radar polarizations with water spectral indices were useful for improving the accuracy of extracting water bodies in places with clouds, without significant variations, in addition to providing detailed information, with potential for continuous monitoring.</p> Juarez Antonio da Silva Júnior, Ubiratan Joaquim Da Silva Junior Copyright (c) 2023 Juarez Antonio da Silva Júnior, Ubiratan Joaquim Da Silva Junior Fri, 08 Dec 2023 00:00:00 -0300 Chemical and Physical Characterization of Swift Guano in Quartzitic Karst Landscape in Brazil <p>The Private Reserve of Natural Patrimony (RPPN) of the Santuário of Caraça is found in a mountain region within the Quadrilátero Ferrífero geological province in the State of Minas Gerais. In this region, intense metamorphic processes shaped their siliciclastic rocks, enabling the formation of fractures and diaclasis, the favourite routes of weathering during the development of karst landscapes. The natural cavities thus formed, mainly in the RPPN sector called “Pico do Inficionado”, provide shelter for countless swifts of the species <em>Streptoprocne zonaris</em> and <em>S. biscutata</em>, responsible for the accumulation of guano on the floor. However, guano is a substance rich in nutrients, mainly phosphates and nitrates, and this is the main nutrient supply in permanently dry caves. This work studied the physical (density) and chemical (organic carbon, nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus, sodium, calcium, magnesium, aluminium and pH) characteristics of 21 guanos layers, correlating their contents with the depth of seven deposits and separating the results into factors. Considering that, knowing that the guano deposits contain crucial elements such as Ca, Mg, and especially P and N, which act as an energy source for many chemotrophic organisms, the subdivision of the studied elements allowed us to defer three factors: the first one features the concentrations of Al, P, K, Na and CO, the second one was determined for N, pH and density. Finally, the third factor was based on Ca and Mg. The quartzitic material influences the chemical and physical composition of the deepest guano. As the rock changes, elements like Al and K are released and enrich the deeper layers, as well as increasing density due to the presence of sand in the material.</p> André Luiz Miranda Reis, Nicolo Clemente, André Luiz Lopes de Faria, Rodrigo Cupertino Bernardes, Liovando Marciano da Costa Copyright (c) 2023 André Luiz Miranda Reis, Nicolo Clemente, André Luiz Lopes de Faria, Rodrigo Cupertino Bernardes, Liovando Marciano da Costa Mon, 27 Nov 2023 00:00:00 -0300 Natural Determinants of the Earth-Mound Fields Distribution in the Southwest of the State of Goiás <p>Murundus fields, also known as covoais, are frequent microreliefs in the Cerrado. These are sets of semicircular elevations that protrude from the surface of the land, rounded or oval, with average dimensions of 70 cm in height and 6 m in diameter. They are associated with wetlands and have been impacted by agricultural expansion. The determinants of its regional spatial distribution are still poorly known. This study aimed to identify the natural determinants of its spatial distribution in the Southwest of Goiás, in the Sedimentary Basin of Paraná. All occurrences of <em>murundus</em> fields identified by the project Mapping of Remnant <em>Murundus</em> Fields in the state of Goiás (SEMAD-GO/LAPIG-UFG) were compared with information referring to lithology, geomorphology, NDWI (Normalized Difference Water Index), and SMI (Soil Moisture Index). The indices were obtained from SENTINEL 2-A (MSI) and Landsat 8 (OLI and TIRS) orbital images. It was found that <em>murundus</em> fields preferentially occur in the Alluvial Deposits, Cachoeirinha, Detritic-lateritic Covers, and Serra Geral geological units. <em>Murundus</em> fields predominate under slopes of 0 to 8% (flat to gently undulating relief), and in areas with lower drainage density. The NDWI and the SMI indicated that <em>murundus</em> fields are concentrated on wet surfaces, occurring less frequently in saturated/very wet areas and in moderate humidity, dry, and very dry surfaces.</p> Amanda Morais Malheiro , Veronica Natalia Boeira, Guilherme Taitson Bueno, José Roberto Mantovani Copyright (c) 2023 Amanda Morais Malheiro , Veronica Natalia Boeira, Guilherme Taitson Bueno, José Roberto Mantovani Mon, 27 Nov 2023 00:00:00 -0300 Impacts of Sea Level Rise and Land Use on Coastal Wetlands: Methodology Applied to Baía da Babitonga (SC) <p>Coastal wetlands are formed by ecosystems with the potential to resist and even expand because of climate change. However, they depend on the preservation of their environmental quality and the ecosystem services they provide, including sediment accumulation, which is essential for maintaining current areas, and the presence of contiguous land areas free from human occupation, allowing for migration to higher areas in response to sea-level rise. To develop a methodology for the joint assessment of the impacts of climate change and land occupation of coastal ecosystems, this study focuses on the mangroves of Baía da Babitonga, located on the northern coast of Santa Catarina. By using projections of sea-level rise and human occupation expansion around the bay based on land cover and land use data, it was possible to identify immediate effects of sea-level rise and human occupation in the short, medium, and long term, as well as the potential expansion area for mangroves. The results indicate the need for the expansion of conservation areas, considering displacement zones towards the mainland, and the control of various stress factors that can interfere with the ecosystem's health and its ability to maintain current areas.</p> André Schmidt Filgueras, Tatiana Silva da Silva, Iran Carlos Stalliviere Corrêa Copyright (c) 2023 André Schmidt Filgueras, Tatiana Silva da Silva, Iran Carlos Stalliviere Corrêa Mon, 27 Nov 2023 00:00:00 -0300 Identification of Gold Mining Vessels based on Classification Algorithms using Sentinel-2 Images <p>Artisanal and small-scale gold mining can occur on land or in riverbeds. However, the activity needs to be supported by a Mining Permit, issued by the Agência Nacional de Mineração, and the appropriate environmental license from the competent environmental agency. The use of images from Sentinel-2 satellites presents itself as a potential tool for identifying gold mining vessels due to the temporal resolution, free imagery, global coverage, and more refined spatial resolution. So, this study aimed to identify gold mining vessels on the Madeira River near Porto Velho city, Rondônia state, located at Brazilian Amazon, in 13 Sentinel-2 images from 2018 to 2021 using the classifiers: Support Vector Machine (SVM), K-Nearest Neighbors (KNN) Random Forest (RF) and Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM). The results showed that machine learning classifiers obtained the best performance, especially the object-oriented SVM classifier, which had the best average F1 score (0.91). In addition, the detection percentage of gold mining vessels originated by this classifier was satisfactory, with only 0 to 4 active gold mining vessels with sediment plumes being omitted per image. Therefore, based on the results obtained, it was concluded that the use of machine learning classifiers proved to be effective in identifying gold mining vessels.</p> Diego Henrique Costa Pereira, Roberto Arnaldo Trancoso Gomes, Osmar Abílio de Carvalho Júnior, Renato Fontes Guimarães Copyright (c) 2023 Diego Henrique Costa Pereira, Roberto Arnaldo Trancoso Gomes, Osmar Abílio de Carvalho Júnior, Renato Fontes Guimarães Mon, 27 Nov 2023 00:00:00 -0300