Sociedade & Natureza <p>SOCIEDADE &amp; NATUREZA Journal is published by the Instituto de Geografia of the Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, being a vehicle for recording and scientific dissemination, its objectives are: publish unpublished critical review works on a topic pertinent to Geography and related areas or the result of research of an empirical nature, experimental or conceptual; encourage the exchange of experience in their specialty with other institutions, national or foreign, that maintain similar publications; defend and respect the principles of pluralism of philosophical, political and scientific ideas.</p> <p>There are no costs for authors regarding the submission and publication of articles (article processing charges (APCs) / article submission charges).</p> Universidade Federal de Uberlândia en-US Sociedade & Natureza 0103-1570 <p align="justify"><strong>Authors hold the Copyright for articles published in this journal, and the journal holds the right for first publication. Because they appear in a public access journal, articles are licensed under Creative Commons Attribution (BY), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.</strong></p> Family farming in the Metropolitan Region of Fortaleza (RMF), Ceará <p>This article aims to deepen the discussion about agricultural activity in metropolitan cities. Our analysis focuses specifically on the Fortaleza Metropolitan Area (FMA), State of Ceará, Brazil, and allows us to further understand family farming in that area. For this purpose, we reviewed a set of primary and secondary data regarding the profile of the producers and agricultural and food processing establishments in the metropolitan area under analysis. This multifaceted approach helped us identify key issues related to production and food systems in the FMA, and showed the importance of a research agenda focused on evaluating the potential of family farming in this specific context. This study presents the production strategies adopted, the challenges faced and the opportunities identified by family farmers. Discussing agriculture in metropolitan areas help us connect socio-spatial and socio-environmental problems, in addition to enabling us to suggest the development of cross-sectoral public policies. By offering a comprehensive overview, this study aims to contribute to effective policy making, promoting the sustainability and resilience of family farming in metropolitan contexts. We hope that the reflection on agriculture developed in such areas and its characteristics in local and metropolitan scenarios will be helpful to researchers, managers and those responsible for the implementation and execution of public policies, as well as other agents and entities interested in family (and urban) agriculture.</p> Iara Rafaela Gomes Copyright (c) 2023 Iara Rafaela Gomes 2024-02-08 2024-02-08 36 1 10.14393/SN-v36-2024-70662 Models and Values of Fees and Incentives for Financing Sustainable Urban Drainage <p>Challenges are observed worldwide in the cost of urban drainage through fees compromising the sustainability of its management. Strategies are needed for greater involvement of users of the drainage system, assuming their responsibility for the cost of this system and collaborating with the system on their properties through the containment and delay of the surface runoff of rainwater to the public network from sustainable technologies. Incentives for these users to implement technologies that minimize the outflow of their properties can be an essential strategy for implementing fees. Therefore, this work aimed to evaluate, through a systematic review (SR), the values and methods of drainage fees and incentives for urban environmental services provided by users of drainage systems. The SR was developed from a search on the Web of Science (WoS) and Scopus platforms, whose data were analyzed using the StArt system. Among the 199 articles studied and published between 2010 and 2021, it was possible to relate fees and incentives practiced. Concerning fee models, the ERU method (Equivalent Residential Unit) was predominant. Regarding the incentive models, the most used was tax reduction.</p> Ana Paula Camargo de Vicente Karla Maria Silva de Faria Klebber Teodomiro Martins Formiga Copyright (c) 2023 Ana Paula Camargo de Vicente, Karla Maria Silva de Faria, Klebber Teodomiro Martins Formiga 2024-02-09 2024-02-09 36 1 10.14393/SN-v36-2024-71211 Critical Points Concerning Artisanal Fishing: an Analysis from the Perspective of Artisanal Fishers in Southeastern Brazil <p>In Southeastern Brazil, artisanal fishing communities reside, operate and suffer from interference originating from various economic branches. Thus, this study is aimed at identifying the critical points concerning the practice of artisanal fishing from the traditional knowledge of artisanal fishers in the coastal mesoregion of ES. 102 ethnographic interviews were conducted in 2022 with artisanal fishers through a semistructured questionnaire containing both open and closed questions. The critical points of fishing were identified through a SWOT analysis (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats). All the participants were men (n=102; 100%), and they reported that negative critical points (weaknesses and threats) exert the greatest influence on fishing. From the perspective of these fishers, the main problems that interfere with artisanal fishing are the lack of adequate fish storage, the precariousness of the vessels, the reduction in fish stocks, the high perishability of fish, the devaluation of traditional knowledge, and the presence of middlemen that prevent the commercialization of fish production from moving directly from the fisher to the final consumer. The identification of these critical points enables the recognition of flaws in the production chain and the realization that they can be minimized through public policies and comanagement strategies related to the economic, ecological, and social development of the sector.</p> Juliana Silva Abreu Laura Helena de Oliveira Côrtes Camilah Antunes Zappes Copyright (c) 2023 Juliana Silva Abreu, Laura Helena de Oliveira Côrtes, Camilah Antunes Zappes 2024-01-31 2024-01-31 36 1 10.14393/SN-v36-2024-71106 A TOPSIS-Based Multicriteria Approach for Reservoir Assessment <p>Abstract Water management in the Brazilian semi-arid region has been, for decades, a challenge for institutions and decision-makers due to its intrinsic characteristics. The density of human occupation makes the region very vulnerable to drought events and problems related to the quality and need for water use are central issues. For this reason, this study presents an approach to assess the situation of water reservoirs in the semiarid based on the Water Quality Index (WQI) and Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM). The WQI was used to calculate water quality and later applied as a criterion for the MCDM model proposed. The model also considers the need and availability criteria to assess the reservoirs of the two largest drainage basins in Rio Grande do Norte state, Brazil. The MCDM method used was R-TOPSIS since it is more flexible and robust for future analyses in other situations. The results showed the condition of the reservoirs, in order to support decision-makers in the operation of these facilities and enable multiple use of the waters. The combined approach proposed may provide important contributions in the analysis of water reservoirs in order to supply the semiarid region, where water issue is critical.</p> Renan Felinto de Farias Aires Camila Cristina Rodrigues Salgado Copyright (c) 2023 Renan Felinto de Farias Aires, Camila Cristina Rodrigues Salgado 2024-01-29 2024-01-29 36 1 10.14393/SN-v36-2024-70948 From Urbanization to Metropolization: A Conceptual Approach <p>The article approaches the processes of metropolization with regard to urban development and spatial organization of the city in their continuous and articulated processes. The perspective of this analysis is that there is a new basis for urban/metropolitan dynamics, moving out from an industrial and post-Fordist economy to a financialization of the economy, which we call metropolization. From the recent dynamics of the concentration of people and the expansion of urban space, some discussions can emerge about the new socio-spatial reality. Concerning metropolization, our main objective is to discuss the concept of urbanization and metropolization, aiming to understand the spatial transformations of the contemporary world. In methodological terms, we sought a bibliographic survey on the dialogical relationship between urbanization and metropolization with Brazilian and foreign authors who are relevant in the Brazilian academic literature and, in turn, are present in the urban/metropolitan analysis. The presence of temporal, economic and spatial dimensions has been deemed the main drivers for metropolization. As a result, the concept of metropolization was understood as a socio-spatial process that interferes in the forms, functions and dynamics of large urban spaces, and that has been acquiring importance in the context of the contemporary world, being a characteristic that pervades urbanization, reaching both countries in the global South as in the global North.</p> Tiago Estevam Gonçalves José Borzacchiello da Silva Enos Feitosa de Araújo Copyright (c) 2023 Tiago Estevam Gonçalves, José Borzacchiello da Silva, Enos Feitosa de Araújo 2024-01-17 2024-01-17 36 1 10.14393/SN-v36-2024-71630 Influence of Vinasse and Mechanized Harvesting on the Physical and Chemical Aspects of Soil in Paudalho Municipality - PE <p>Sugarcane cultivation methods and processes usually have negative impacts on the environment. However, this industry has been seeking more sustainable technologies, ranging from the adequate disposal of the organic residues produced to the elimination of pre-harvest burning and introduction of mechanized harvest. The objective of this work was to verify the influence of vinasse application and mechanized harvesting on the physical and chemical aspects of a dystrophic Red Yellow Argisol of medium texture, cultivated with sugarcane. For this, a field experiment in a Completely Randomized Design, with a factorial scheme was conducted. Four management treatments, with three replications, were evaluated: T1 - Without application of vinasse, burned cane followed by manual harvest, without irrigation; T2 - With application of vinasse, mechanized harvest, without irrigation; T3 - With application of vinasse, mechanized harvest, with irrigation; T4 - With application of vinasse, burned cane followed by manual harvest, without irrigation. Soil samples were collected in three depths (0 – 20 cm, 20 – 40 cm and 40 – 60 cm) and soil physical and chemical characteristics were determined. The data obtained were submitted to ANOVA and compared by the Tukey test (p≤0.05) of probability, using the statistical program ASSISTAT 7.7 beta. The results showed that fertigation with vinasse did not influence soil density, particle density, and total porosity. However, mechanized harvesting increased soil density and total porosity. The soil in the experimental unit without vinasse application presented a more acidic pH and high levels of aluminum saturation, causing a decrease in the availability of nutrients, and the soils treated with vinasse had an increase in nutrient availability. Therefore, the addition of vinasse can be an important strategy in maintaining and increasing long-term soil fertility in sugarcane cropping systems.</p> Valquíria do Nascimento Tavares Inaldo Jerfson Sobreira da Silva Fernando Cartaxo Rolim Neto Roberto da Boa Viagem Parahyba Rômulo Simões Cezar Menezes Marcus Metri Correa Maria o Socorro Bezerra de Araújo Copyright (c) 2023 Valquíria do Nascimento Tavares, Inaldo Jerfson Sobreira da Silva, Fernando Cartaxo Rolim Neto, Roberto da Boa Viagem Parahyba, Rômulo Simões Cezar Menezes, Marcus Metri Correa, Maria o Socorro Bezerra de Araújo 2024-01-15 2024-01-15 36 1 10.14393/SN-v36-2024-69886 The Dunes Contribution to the Ecosystem Service of Coastal Protection on the Northern Coast of RS <p>Coastal dunes have a crucial role in offering the ecosystem service of natural coastal protection. This paper investigates the importance of dunes in providing the ecosystem service of natural coastal protection on the North Coast of the State of Rio Grande do Sul (RS) in southern Brazil. The <em>Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoffs</em> (<em>InVEST®) Coastal Vulnerability Model</em> was used to quantify the relative susceptibility to coastal erosion and flooding within the study area. First, the model was run to assess the susceptibility to coastal hazards considering the presence of dunes. Then, the model was run again without the presence of dunes. By comparing the results of the two model simulations, it was possible to identify where dunes contribute to reducing coastal exposure, which indirectly reflects their role in providing the ecosystem service of natural coastal protection. There are two main dune fields in the study area, one in the northern coastal sector and one in the southern sector, respectively in the municipalities of Torres and Cidreira. The index of exposure values produced by the two model simulations were very similar for locations along the Torres coastline. In contrast, along the coast of Cidreira, results from the model simulation without dunes produced higher exposure values than the simulation with the presence of dunes, suggesting that the dunes have an important role in offering natural coastal protection. Dunes are a natural barrier against coastal erosion and flooding, but they are not the only factor influencing the ecosystem service of coastal protection. In Torres, for instance, the local topography and the wind patterns contribute to reducing local exposure. The greatest threat in this sector is the urban sprawl.</p> Daniela Forgiarini da Silva Tatiana Silva da Silva Luciana Slomp Esteves Giuliana Andréia Sfreddo Copyright (c) 2023 Daniela Forgiarini da Silva, Tatiana Silva da Silva, Luciana Slomp Esteves, Giuliana Andréia Sfreddo 2024-01-15 2024-01-15 36 1 10.14393/SN-v36-2024-70074 Growth and productive sophistication of Minas Artisanal Cheese from Canastra: an analysis based on innovative processes in natural resources <p>This article aims to delineate the role of innovation in the successful outcomes of Minas Artisanal Cheese (QMA) from Canastra. The methodological foundation is built upon literature review, documentary analysis, field research, and interviews. Our findings reveal the interplay between traditional and scientific knowledge as a pivotal element in the productive sophistication of Canastra’s QMA, facilitating work enhancement and striving to meet consumer market demands while maintaining local know-how and practices, which the society-nature relationship has historically shaped. The discussion is situated within the realm of empirical studies on natural resource-based innovation in Latin America and reflections on Territorial Innovation Systems (TIS), which consider a multiscale perspective of the innovation process prevalent in studies in the field of Knowledge and Innovation Geography. Despite advancements, we underscore that the establishment of Canastra’s QMA still faces challenges stemming from typical structural frailties of peripheral TIS. We aspire that these results not only contribute to comprehending the productive region of Canastra’s QMA but also serve as a supportive framework for innovation policies that acknowledge the necessity of contextual considerations in regional realities.</p> Letícia Silva Bastos Flávia Luciane Consoni Fernando Campos Mesquita Copyright (c) 2023 Letícia Silva Bastos, Flávia Luciane Consoni, Fernando Campos Mesquita 2024-01-10 2024-01-10 36 1 10.14393/SN-v36-2024-69754 Meta-Analysis of Scientific Production on Soils in the Municipalities of the Triângulo Mineiro and Alto Paranaíba in the Last 30 Years <p>The geographical mesoregion of the Triângulo Mineiro and Alto Paranaíba has an economy strongly focused on agribusiness, with grain and sugarcane production levels that put them at the forefront of the economic and political scenario of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. However, scientific production focused on soil diversity in this region has long been undervalued compared to other regions of the state and country where the soils exhibit more diverse and, therefore, more intriguing geological and geomorphological characteristics. This paper aims to evaluate the evolution and spatialization of bibliographic production with the central theme of soils in the Triângulo Mineiro and Alto Paranaíba mesoregion. As such, papers from the last three decades within the municipalities of the studied region were selected from five important journals. The papers from the initial screening were analyzed for the following: the profile of the authors (gender and institutional affiliation); number of authors per paper; methods used; and distribution of these papers across the selected region. The results indicate a concentration of papers in four municipalities and a total lack of publications from another 40. Males heavily dominated scientific production in the analyzed segments. Despite the mesoregion having 11 public higher education institutions, most municipalities' soil research was incipient. Regarding the methods used by researchers, in municipalities where more institutional partnerships were made possible, there was an increase in the number of techniques and methods explored in investigating problems. Although the study area presents relative geological and geomorphological homogeneity that gives a monotonous aspect to the landscape, knowledge of its pedodiversity, and its economic significance for agriculture, justifies the need to resume soil studies in the Triângulo Mineiro and Alto Paranaíba, particularly by exploring methods and municipalities that are still little known.</p> Henrique Amorim Machado Patrícia Soares Rezende Alcione Rodrigues Milagres Vinícius Nunes de Lima Gabriel Fabricio Cunha Fonseca Copyright (c) 2023 Henrique Amorim Machado, Patrícia Soares Rezende, Alcione Rodrigues Milagres, Vinícius Nunes de Lima Gabriel, Fabricio Cunha Fonseca 2024-01-10 2024-01-10 36 1 10.14393/SN-v36-2024-70461 Changes in Soil Organic Carbon Stocks Due to Land Use Changes in the Extended São Francisco River Basin <p>As the largest carbon reservoir in terrestrial ecosystems, soils play a critical role in food production, mitigation and adaption to climate change, and sustainability of agroecosystems. In this context, the aim of this study is to estimate variations in soil carbon stocks resulting from land use and management changes in different biomes that compose the Bacia Estendida do Rio São Francisco (BESF - Extended São Francisco River Basin), between 1985 and 2017. For this, remote sensing data and information from the IBGE agriculture and livestock census were used, in addition to emission factors to estimate soil organic carbon (SOC) changes. The results indicate that BESF had about 5.70 million ha degraded in the analyzed period, in addition to an increase of 0.72 Tg C year-1 in SOC stocks. The sub-medium São Francisco River basin recorded the highest SOC gain, with an increase of 0.54 Tg C ha-1; on the other hand, the sub-medium São Francisco River sub-basin had the greatest SOC losses, with an estimated reduction of 0.07 Tg C year-1. In short, this study provides important evidence on changes in SOC stocks in the region, emphasizing the importance of native vegetation conversion to agriculture and livestock systems under sustainable soil management for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions and maintaining soil quality.</p> Saniel Carlos dos Santos Higor Costa de Brito Iana Alexandra Alves Rufino Stoécio Malta Ferreira Maia Copyright (c) 2023 Saniel Carlos dos Santos, Higor Costa de Brito, Iana Alexandra Alves Rufino, Stoécio Malta Ferreira Maia 2023-12-15 2023-12-15 36 1 10.14393/SN-v36-2024-69655 ICMS-ecológico as a public policy instrument for the preservation of biodiversity: a study applied in small towns in Paraná, Brazil <p>The Ecological Tax on the Circulation of Goods and Services for Biodiversity (ICMS-E) was created in 1991 as an initiative of the government of Paraná State. It is an important public policy instrument for the preservation of biodiversity in small municipalities that house Conservation Units. The aim of this article was to analyze whether resources from the ICMS-E, added to municipal tax revenues, improve sustainable development over time. As part of the methodological procedures, a descriptive-comparative analysis was conducted between municipalities that receive and do not receive ICMS-E. For this purpose, a sampling of the 399 municipalities that comprise Paraná State was conducted, involving 193 municipalities with a population of up to 50,000 inhabitants. The comparative analysis was based on the definition of two study groups, each constituted by 76 municipalities: one called the ICMS-E Recipient Group, municipalities that receive the ecological tax; and the Control Group, composed of those that do not receive it. The main results indicate that 19.80% of the municipalities are concentrated in the North Central mesoregion, while the Metropolitan Region of Curitiba is home to 33.45% of the population of Paraná. In relation to population loss, this factor represents 44.73% in the ICMS-E Recipient Group, while in the Control Group this number is 34.21%. In relation to the Environmental Management Function, 60.53% of the municipalities in the Recipient Group applied up to 75% of this tax to this function. It was concluded that the ICMS-E is an important incentive for the preservation of biodiversity and represents a significant increase in resources for the local governments of small municipalities.</p> Nelson Granados Moratta Christian Luiz da Silva Alain Hernández Santoyo Copyright (c) 2023 Nelson Granados Moratta, Christian Luiz da Silva, Alain Hernández Santoyo 2023-12-14 2023-12-14 36 1 10.14393/SN-v36-2024-70437 Water Body Extraction Using a Sentinel-1 Scene and Artificial Neural Networks: Case Study – Carpina-PE Dam <p>Surface water is the most important resource and environmental factor for maintaining human survival and ecosystem stability, therefore accurate and timely information on surface water is urgently needed. In this study, an image classification approach using Artificial Neural Networks was proposed for mapping the surface water extent of the Carpina-PE Dam using radar image from the Sentinel-1 satellite, as well as its polarizations (VH and VV) and the generated water indices (SDWI and SWI). All datasets presented limitations in detecting small water bodies, such as narrow rivers, and overestimation in pasture areas, generating commission errors ranging from 16.5% to 28.9% and omission errors ranging from 1.47% and 3.5%, with emphasis on VH and VV polarizations. The overall classification accuracy ranged from 96% to 98% and R² values reached close to 1, where the best performance was seen for SDWI and SWI. The comparative experiments indicated that unitary radar polarizations with water spectral indices were useful for improving the accuracy of extracting water bodies in places with clouds, without significant variations, in addition to providing detailed information, with potential for continuous monitoring.</p> Juarez Antonio da Silva Júnior Ubiratan Joaquim Da Silva Junior Copyright (c) 2023 Juarez Antonio da Silva Júnior, Ubiratan Joaquim Da Silva Junior 2023-12-08 2023-12-08 36 1 10.14393/SN-v36-2024-70654 Chemical and Physical Characterization of Swift Guano in Quartzitic Karst Landscape in Brazil <p>The Private Reserve of Natural Patrimony (RPPN) of the Santuário of Caraça is found in a mountain region within the Quadrilátero Ferrífero geological province in the State of Minas Gerais. In this region, intense metamorphic processes shaped their siliciclastic rocks, enabling the formation of fractures and diaclasis, the favourite routes of weathering during the development of karst landscapes. The natural cavities thus formed, mainly in the RPPN sector called “Pico do Inficionado”, provide shelter for countless swifts of the species <em>Streptoprocne zonaris</em> and <em>S. biscutata</em>, responsible for the accumulation of guano on the floor. However, guano is a substance rich in nutrients, mainly phosphates and nitrates, and this is the main nutrient supply in permanently dry caves. This work studied the physical (density) and chemical (organic carbon, nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus, sodium, calcium, magnesium, aluminium and pH) characteristics of 21 guanos layers, correlating their contents with the depth of seven deposits and separating the results into factors. Considering that, knowing that the guano deposits contain crucial elements such as Ca, Mg, and especially P and N, which act as an energy source for many chemotrophic organisms, the subdivision of the studied elements allowed us to defer three factors: the first one features the concentrations of Al, P, K, Na and CO, the second one was determined for N, pH and density. Finally, the third factor was based on Ca and Mg. The quartzitic material influences the chemical and physical composition of the deepest guano. As the rock changes, elements like Al and K are released and enrich the deeper layers, as well as increasing density due to the presence of sand in the material.</p> André Luiz Miranda Reis Nicolo Clemente André Luiz Lopes de Faria Rodrigo Cupertino Bernardes Liovando Marciano da Costa Copyright (c) 2023 André Luiz Miranda Reis, Nicolo Clemente, André Luiz Lopes de Faria, Rodrigo Cupertino Bernardes, Liovando Marciano da Costa 2023-11-27 2023-11-27 36 1 10.14393/SN-v36-2024-70150 Natural Determinants of the Earth-Mound Fields Distribution in the Southwest of the State of Goiás <p>Murundus fields, also known as covoais, are frequent microreliefs in the Cerrado. These are sets of semicircular elevations that protrude from the surface of the land, rounded or oval, with average dimensions of 70 cm in height and 6 m in diameter. They are associated with wetlands and have been impacted by agricultural expansion. The determinants of its regional spatial distribution are still poorly known. This study aimed to identify the natural determinants of its spatial distribution in the Southwest of Goiás, in the Sedimentary Basin of Paraná. All occurrences of <em>murundus</em> fields identified by the project Mapping of Remnant <em>Murundus</em> Fields in the state of Goiás (SEMAD-GO/LAPIG-UFG) were compared with information referring to lithology, geomorphology, NDWI (Normalized Difference Water Index), and SMI (Soil Moisture Index). The indices were obtained from SENTINEL 2-A (MSI) and Landsat 8 (OLI and TIRS) orbital images. It was found that <em>murundus</em> fields preferentially occur in the Alluvial Deposits, Cachoeirinha, Detritic-lateritic Covers, and Serra Geral geological units. <em>Murundus</em> fields predominate under slopes of 0 to 8% (flat to gently undulating relief), and in areas with lower drainage density. The NDWI and the SMI indicated that <em>murundus</em> fields are concentrated on wet surfaces, occurring less frequently in saturated/very wet areas and in moderate humidity, dry, and very dry surfaces.</p> Amanda Morais Malheiro Veronica Natalia Boeira Guilherme Taitson Bueno José Roberto Mantovani Copyright (c) 2023 Amanda Morais Malheiro , Veronica Natalia Boeira, Guilherme Taitson Bueno, José Roberto Mantovani 2023-11-27 2023-11-27 36 1 10.14393/SN-v36-2024-69038 Impacts of Sea Level Rise and Land Use on Coastal Wetlands: Methodology Applied to Baía da Babitonga (SC) <p>Coastal wetlands are formed by ecosystems with the potential to resist and even expand because of climate change. However, they depend on the preservation of their environmental quality and the ecosystem services they provide, including sediment accumulation, which is essential for maintaining current areas, and the presence of contiguous land areas free from human occupation, allowing for migration to higher areas in response to sea-level rise. To develop a methodology for the joint assessment of the impacts of climate change and land occupation of coastal ecosystems, this study focuses on the mangroves of Baía da Babitonga, located on the northern coast of Santa Catarina. By using projections of sea-level rise and human occupation expansion around the bay based on land cover and land use data, it was possible to identify immediate effects of sea-level rise and human occupation in the short, medium, and long term, as well as the potential expansion area for mangroves. The results indicate the need for the expansion of conservation areas, considering displacement zones towards the mainland, and the control of various stress factors that can interfere with the ecosystem's health and its ability to maintain current areas.</p> André Schmidt Filgueras Tatiana Silva da Silva Iran Carlos Stalliviere Corrêa Copyright (c) 2023 André Schmidt Filgueras, Tatiana Silva da Silva, Iran Carlos Stalliviere Corrêa 2023-11-27 2023-11-27 36 1 10.14393/SN-v36-2024-69403 Identification of Gold Mining Vessels based on Classification Algorithms using Sentinel-2 Images <p>Artisanal and small-scale gold mining can occur on land or in riverbeds. However, the activity needs to be supported by a Mining Permit, issued by the Agência Nacional de Mineração, and the appropriate environmental license from the competent environmental agency. The use of images from Sentinel-2 satellites presents itself as a potential tool for identifying gold mining vessels due to the temporal resolution, free imagery, global coverage, and more refined spatial resolution. So, this study aimed to identify gold mining vessels on the Madeira River near Porto Velho city, Rondônia state, located at Brazilian Amazon, in 13 Sentinel-2 images from 2018 to 2021 using the classifiers: Support Vector Machine (SVM), K-Nearest Neighbors (KNN) Random Forest (RF) and Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM). The results showed that machine learning classifiers obtained the best performance, especially the object-oriented SVM classifier, which had the best average F1 score (0.91). In addition, the detection percentage of gold mining vessels originated by this classifier was satisfactory, with only 0 to 4 active gold mining vessels with sediment plumes being omitted per image. Therefore, based on the results obtained, it was concluded that the use of machine learning classifiers proved to be effective in identifying gold mining vessels.</p> Diego Henrique Costa Pereira Roberto Arnaldo Trancoso Gomes Osmar Abílio de Carvalho Júnior Renato Fontes Guimarães Copyright (c) 2023 Diego Henrique Costa Pereira, Roberto Arnaldo Trancoso Gomes, Osmar Abílio de Carvalho Júnior, Renato Fontes Guimarães 2023-11-27 2023-11-27 36 1 10.14393/SN-v36-2024-69409